Multisystemic Manifestations in Rare Diseases: The Experience of Dyskeratosis Congenita

Michele Callea, Diego Martinelli, Francisco Cammarata Scalisi, Chiara Grimaldi, Houweyda Jilani, Piercesare Grimaldi, Colin Eric Willoughby, Antonino Morabito

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)


Dyskeratosis congenital (DC) is the first genetic syndrome described among telomeropathies. Its classical phenotype is characterized by the mucocutaneous triad of reticulated pigmentation of skin lace, nail dystrophy and oral leukoplakia. The clinical presentation, however, is heterogeneous and serious clinical complications include bone marrow failure, hematological and solid tumors. It may also involve immunodeficiencies, dental, pulmonary and liver disorders, and other minor complication. Dyskeratosis congenita shows marked genetic heterogeneity, as at least 14 genes are responsible for the shortening of telomeres characteristic of this disease. This review discusses clinical characteristics, molecular genetics, disease evolution, available therapeutic options and differential diagnosis of dyskeratosis congenita to provide an interdisciplinary and personalized medical assessment that includes family genetic counseling.
Original languageEnglish
Article number496
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
Issue number3
Early online date11 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 11 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Clinic
  • Treatment
  • Etiology
  • Dyskeratosis congenita
  • Telomeropathies


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