The secondary control layer of microgrids is often modelled as a multi‐agent distributed system, coordinated based on consensus protocols. Convergence time of consensus algorithm significantly affects transient stability of microgrids, due to changes in communication topology, switching of distributed generations (DGs), and uncertainty of intermittent energy sources. To minimise convergence time in consensus protocol, this work proposes a multilayer event‐based consensus control framework, which is resilient to communication delays and supports plug‐and‐play (P&P) addition or removal of DGs in DC microgrids of cellular energy systems. A novel bi‐layer optimisation algorithm minimises convergence time by selecting an optimal communication topology graph and then adjusts controllers' parameters. Average consensus is achieved among distributed controllers using an event‐based consensus protocol, considering non‐uniform delays between agents. A realisation method has also been introduced using the directional beamforming technique for topology assignment algorithm based on modern telecommunication technologies. Provided feasibility case study has been implemented on a real‐time hardware‐in‐the‐loop (HIL) experimental testbed, to validate the performance of the proposed framework for key purposes of voltage stabilisation and balanced power‐sharing in DC microgrids.
- ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER
- ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPERS