Multi-Stage Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Siting Electric Vehicle Charging Stations within and across Border Regions

Oluwasola Ademulegun, Paul MacArtain, Bukola Oni, Neil Hewitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


Electric Vehicles (EVs) replace fossil fuel vehicles in effort towards having more sustainable transport systems. The battery of an EV is recharged at a charging point using electricity. While some recharging will be required at locations where vehicles are normally parked, other recharging could be necessary at strategic locations of vehicular travel. Certain locations are suitable for EV charging station deployment, others are not. A multi-stage decision analysis methodology for selecting suitable locations for installing EV charging station is presented. The multi-stage approach makes it possible to select critical criteria with respect to any defined objectives of the EV charging station and techno-physio-socio-economic factors without which the EV charging station could not be deployed or would not serve its designated purpose. In a case, the type of charging station is specified, and a purpose is defined: rapid EV charging stations intended for public use within and across border regions. Applied in siting real EV charging stations at optimal locations, stages in the methodology present additional techno-physio-socio-economic factors in deploying the type of EV charging stations at optimal locations and keep the EV charging stations operating within acceptable standards. Some locations were dropped at the critical analysis stage; others were dropped at the site-specific analysis stage and replacement sites were required in certain instances. Final locations included most optimal, less optimal, least optimal, and strategic or special need locations. The average distances between contiguous recharging locations were less than 60 miles. Using any specified separation standard, the number of additional EV charging stations required between EV charging stations were determinable with the Pool Box. The Overall Charging Station Availability quadrants suggest that the overall user experience could get worse as less-standardized additional EV charging stations are deployed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9396
Pages (from-to)1-28
Number of pages28
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 12 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Centre for Sustainable Technologies of Ulster University.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • border region travel
  • charging electric vehicles
  • charging infrastructure
  • EV recharging
  • multi-criteria multi-stage analysis
  • optimal charging location
  • public EV charging
  • siting EV stations


Dive into the research topics of 'Multi-Stage Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Siting Electric Vehicle Charging Stations within and across Border Regions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this