The development of a 3D printed sensor for direct incorporation within stoma pouches is described. Laser induced graphene scribed on either side of polyimide film served as the basis of a 2 electrode configuration that could be integrated within a disposable pouch sensor for the periodic monitoring of ileostomy fluid pH. The graphene sensors were characterised using electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, DekTak profilometry with the electrochemical properties investigated using both cyclic and square wave voltammetry. Adsorbed riboflavin was employed as a biocompatible redox probe for the voltammetric measurement of pH. The variation in peak position with pH was found to be linear over pH 3–8 with a sub Nernstian response (43 mV/pH). The adsorbed probe was found to be reversible and exhibited minimal leaching through repeated scanning. The performance of the system was assessed in a heterogeneous bacterial fermentation mixture simulating ileostomy fluid with the pH recorded before and after 96 h incubation. The peak profile in the bacterial medium provided an unambiguous signal free from interference with the calculated pH before and after incubation (pH 5.3 to 3.66) in good agreement with that obtained with commercial pH probes.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We wish to thank the Department for the Economy Northern Ireland and the Medical Research Council (Award No. MR/W029561/1) for supporting this work.
© 2023, The Author(s).
- Laser induced graphene