Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing

A Morrision, D McGrath, E S Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. Thisstudy investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of highand intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The varianceparallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and locationof the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher valuesof VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy wasfound in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variablesbut not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has beenpreviously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skilllevels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with morecontrol exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggestthat to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but maylie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body.
LanguageEnglish
Pages129-147
JournalHuman Movement Science
Volume46
Early online date16 Jan 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2016

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Keywords

  • Golf
  • Synergy
  • Redundancy
  • Kinematics
  • Coordination

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Morrision, A ; McGrath, D ; Wallace, E S. / Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing. In: Human Movement Science. 2016 ; Vol. 46. pp. 129-147.
@article{e8b2b119ea7548bdaa0ce6d85289659b,
title = "Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing",
abstract = "Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. Thisstudy investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of highand intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The varianceparallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and locationof the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher valuesof VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy wasfound in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variablesbut not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has beenpreviously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skilllevels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with morecontrol exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggestthat to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but maylie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body.",
keywords = "Golf, Synergy, Redundancy, Kinematics, Coordination",
author = "A Morrision and D McGrath and Wallace, {E S}",
note = "Reference text: Betzler, N. F. (2010). The effect of differing shaft dynamics on the biomechanics of the golf swing [Ph.D. thesis]. Edinburgh Napier University. Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2012). Variability in clubhead presentation characteristics and ball impact location for golfers’ drives. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 439–448. Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2014). The relationships between driver clubhead presentation characteristics, ball launch conditions and golf shot outcomes. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 228, 242–249. Bootsma, R. J., & Van Wieringen, P. C. (1990). Timing an attacking forehand drive in table tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16, 21. Brown, S. J., Selbie, W. S., & Wallace, E. S. (2013). The X-factor: An evaluation of common methods used to analyse major inter-segment kinematics during the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 1156–1163. Coleman, S., & Rankin, A. (2005). A three-dimensional examination of the planar nature of the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 227–234. Domkin, D., Laczko, J., Djupsj{\"o}backa, M., Jaric, S., & Latash, M. L. (2005). Joint angle variability in 3D bimanual pointing: Uncontrolled manifold analysis. Experimental Brain Research, 163, 44–57. Domkin, D., Laczko, J., Jaric, S., Johansson, H., & Latash, M. L. (2002). Structure of joint variability in bimanual pointing tasks. Experimental Brain Research, 143, 11–23. Fedorcik, G. G., Queen, R. M., Abbey, A. N., Moorman, C. T., & Ruch, D. S. (2011). Differences in wrist mechanics during the golf swing based on golf handicap. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage. Giakas, G., Baltzopoulos, V., & Bartlett, R. (1997). Improved extrapolation techniques in recursive digital filtering: A comparison of least squares and prediction. Journal of Biomechanics, 31, 87–91. Glazier, P. (2011). Movement variability in the golf swing: Theoretical methodological and practical issues. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 157–161. Harper, T. E., Roberts, J. R., & Jones, R. (2005). Driver swing weighting: A worthwhile process? Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 219, 385–393. Horan, S. A., Evans, K., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2011). Movement variability in the golf swing of male and female skilled golfers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43, 1474–1483. Horan, S. A., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2012). The control of upper body segment speed and velocity during the golf swing. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 165–174. Kapur, S., Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Latash, M. L. (2010). Age-related changes in the control of finger force vectors. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109, 1827–1841. Keogh, J. W. L., & Hume, P. A. (2012). Evidence for biomechanics and motor learning research improving golf performance. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 288–309. Knight, C. A. (2004). Neuromotor issues in the learning and control of golf skill. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75, 9–15. Krishnan, V., Rosenblatt, N. J., Latash, M. L., & Grabiner, M. D. (2013). The effects of age on stabilization of the mediolateral trajectory of the swing foot. Gait & Posture, 38, 923–928. Kwon, Y.-H., Como, C. S., Singhal, K., Lee, S., & Han, K. H. (2012). Assessment of planarity of the golf swing based on the functional swing plane of the clubhead and motion planes of the body points. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 127–148. Langdown, B. L., Bridge, M., & Li, F.-X. (2012). Movement variability in the golf swing. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 273–287. Latash, M. L. (2000). There is no motor redundancy in human movements. There is motor abundance. Motor Control, 4, 259–260. Latash, M. L. (2010). Stages in learning motor synergies: A view based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Human Movement Science, 29, 642–654. Latash, M. L. (2012). The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy). Experimental Brain Research, 217, 1–5. Latash, M. L., Scholz, J. P., & Sch{\"o}ner, G. (2002). Motor control strategies revealed in the structure of motor variability. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 30, 26–31. Lee, D. N., Roly, J., & Thomson, J. A. (1982). Regulation of gait in long jumping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 448–459. Mann, R., & Griffin, F. (1999). Swing like a pro: The breakthrough scientific method of perfecting your golf swing (1st ed.). Broadway Books. Martin, J. R., Terekhov, A. V., Latash, M. L., & Zatsiorsky, V. M. (2013). Optimization and variability of motor behavior in multifinger tasks: What variables does the brain use? Journal of Motor Behavior, 45, 289–305. Martin, V. (2005). A dynamical systems account of the uncontrolled manifold and motor equivalence in human pointing movements (Doctoral dissertation). Ruhr- Universit{\"a}t Bochum. Morrison, A., McGrath, D., & Wallace, E. (2014). Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. Procedia Engineering, 72, 144–149. Park, J., Sun, Y., Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Latash, M. L. (2011). Age-related changes in optimality and motor variability: An example of multifinger redundant tasks. Experimental Brain Research, 212, 1–18. Rein, R., Bril, B., & Nonaka, T. (2013). Coordination strategies used in stone knapping: Coordination strategies used in stone knapping. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 150, 539–550. Reisman, D. S., Scholz, J. P., & Sch{\"o}ner, G. (2002). Coordination underlying the control of whole body momentum during sit-to-stand. Gait & Posture, 15, 45–55. Scholz, J. P., Kang, N., Patterson, D., & Latash, M. L. (2003). Uncontrolled manifold analysis of single trials during multi-finger force production by persons with and without down syndrome. Experimental Brain Research, 153, 45–58. Scholz, J. P., Dwight-Higgin, T., Lynch, J. E., Tseng, Y. W., Martin, V., & Sch{\"o}ner, G. (2011). Motor equivalence and self-motion induced by different movement speeds. Experimental Brain Research, 209, 319–332. Scholz, J. P., Reisman, D., & Sch{\"o}ner, G. (2001). Effects of varying task constraints on solutions to joint coordination in a sit-to-stand task. Experimental Brain Research, 141, 485–500. Scholz, J. P., & Sch Sch{\"o}ner, G. (1999). The uncontrolled manifold concept: Identifying control variables for a functional task. Experimental Brain Research, 126, 289–306. Scholz, J. P., Sch{\"o}ner, G., & Latash, M. L. (2000). Identifying the control structure of multijoint coordination during pistol shooting. Experimental Brain Research, 135, 382–404. Sch{\"o}ner, G. (1995). Recent developments and problems in human movement science and their conceptual implications. Ecological Psychology, 7, 291–314. Schwartz, M. H., & Rozumalski, A. (2005). A new method for estimating joint parameters from motion data. Journal of Biomechanics, 38, 107–116. Scott, M. A., Li, F.-X., & Davids, K. (1997). Expertise and the regulation of gait in the approach phase of the long jump.pdf. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 597–605. Sinclair, J., Currigan, G., Fewtrell, D. J., & Taylor, P. J. (2014). Biomechanical correlates of club-head velocity during the golf swing. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14, 54–63. Tucker, C. B., Anderson, R., & Kenny, I. C. (2013). Is outcome related to movement variability in golf? Sports Biomechanics, 1–12. Verrel, J., L{\"o}vd{\'e}n, M., & Lindenberger, U. (2012). Normal aging reduces motor synergies in manual pointing. Neurobiology of Aging, 33. 200.e1–200.e10. Vint, P. F., & Hinrichs, R. N. (1996). Endpoint error in smoothing and differentiating raw kinematic data: An evaluation of four popular methods. Journal of Biomechanics, 29, 1637–1642. Winter, D. A. (2009). Biomechanics and motor control of human movement (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Wu, Y.-H., & Latash, M. L. (2014). The effects of practice on coordination. Exercise and Sport Sciences Review, 42, 37–42. Wu, Y.-H., Pazin, N., Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Latash, M. L. (2012). Practicing elements versus practicing coordination: Changes in the structure of variance. Journal of Motor Behavior, 44, 471–478. Wu, Y.-H., Truglio, T. S., Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Latash, M. L. (2015). Learning to combine variability with high precision: Lack of transfer to a different task. Journal of Motor Behavior, 47, 153–165. Yang, J.-F., & Scholz, J. P. (2005). Learning a throwing task is associated with differential changes in the use of motor abundance. Experimental Brain Research,163, 137–158. Zheng, N., Barrentine, S. W., Fleisig, G. S., & Andrews, J. R. (2008). Kinematic analysis of pro and amateur golfers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 487–493.",
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Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing. / Morrision, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S.

In: Human Movement Science, Vol. 46, 30.04.2016, p. 129-147.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing

AU - Morrision, A

AU - McGrath, D

AU - Wallace, E S

N1 - Reference text: Betzler, N. F. (2010). The effect of differing shaft dynamics on the biomechanics of the golf swing [Ph.D. thesis]. Edinburgh Napier University. Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2012). Variability in clubhead presentation characteristics and ball impact location for golfers’ drives. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 439–448. Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2014). The relationships between driver clubhead presentation characteristics, ball launch conditions and golf shot outcomes. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 228, 242–249. Bootsma, R. J., & Van Wieringen, P. C. (1990). Timing an attacking forehand drive in table tennis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16, 21. Brown, S. J., Selbie, W. S., & Wallace, E. S. (2013). The X-factor: An evaluation of common methods used to analyse major inter-segment kinematics during the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 1156–1163. Coleman, S., & Rankin, A. (2005). A three-dimensional examination of the planar nature of the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 227–234. Domkin, D., Laczko, J., Djupsjöbacka, M., Jaric, S., & Latash, M. L. (2005). Joint angle variability in 3D bimanual pointing: Uncontrolled manifold analysis. Experimental Brain Research, 163, 44–57. Domkin, D., Laczko, J., Jaric, S., Johansson, H., & Latash, M. L. (2002). Structure of joint variability in bimanual pointing tasks. Experimental Brain Research, 143, 11–23. Fedorcik, G. G., Queen, R. M., Abbey, A. N., Moorman, C. T., & Ruch, D. S. (2011). Differences in wrist mechanics during the golf swing based on golf handicap. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage. Giakas, G., Baltzopoulos, V., & Bartlett, R. (1997). Improved extrapolation techniques in recursive digital filtering: A comparison of least squares and prediction. Journal of Biomechanics, 31, 87–91. Glazier, P. (2011). Movement variability in the golf swing: Theoretical methodological and practical issues. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 157–161. Harper, T. E., Roberts, J. R., & Jones, R. (2005). Driver swing weighting: A worthwhile process? Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 219, 385–393. Horan, S. A., Evans, K., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2011). Movement variability in the golf swing of male and female skilled golfers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43, 1474–1483. Horan, S. A., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2012). The control of upper body segment speed and velocity during the golf swing. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 165–174. Kapur, S., Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Latash, M. L. (2010). Age-related changes in the control of finger force vectors. Journal of Applied Physiology, 109, 1827–1841. Keogh, J. W. L., & Hume, P. A. (2012). Evidence for biomechanics and motor learning research improving golf performance. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 288–309. Knight, C. A. (2004). Neuromotor issues in the learning and control of golf skill. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75, 9–15. Krishnan, V., Rosenblatt, N. J., Latash, M. L., & Grabiner, M. D. (2013). The effects of age on stabilization of the mediolateral trajectory of the swing foot. Gait & Posture, 38, 923–928. Kwon, Y.-H., Como, C. S., Singhal, K., Lee, S., & Han, K. H. (2012). Assessment of planarity of the golf swing based on the functional swing plane of the clubhead and motion planes of the body points. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 127–148. Langdown, B. L., Bridge, M., & Li, F.-X. (2012). Movement variability in the golf swing. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 273–287. Latash, M. L. (2000). There is no motor redundancy in human movements. There is motor abundance. Motor Control, 4, 259–260. Latash, M. L. (2010). Stages in learning motor synergies: A view based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Human Movement Science, 29, 642–654. Latash, M. L. (2012). The bliss (not the problem) of motor abundance (not redundancy). Experimental Brain Research, 217, 1–5. Latash, M. L., Scholz, J. P., & Schöner, G. (2002). Motor control strategies revealed in the structure of motor variability. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 30, 26–31. Lee, D. N., Roly, J., & Thomson, J. A. (1982). Regulation of gait in long jumping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 448–459. Mann, R., & Griffin, F. (1999). Swing like a pro: The breakthrough scientific method of perfecting your golf swing (1st ed.). Broadway Books. Martin, J. R., Terekhov, A. V., Latash, M. L., & Zatsiorsky, V. M. (2013). Optimization and variability of motor behavior in multifinger tasks: What variables does the brain use? Journal of Motor Behavior, 45, 289–305. Martin, V. (2005). A dynamical systems account of the uncontrolled manifold and motor equivalence in human pointing movements (Doctoral dissertation). Ruhr- Universität Bochum. Morrison, A., McGrath, D., & Wallace, E. (2014). Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. Procedia Engineering, 72, 144–149. Park, J., Sun, Y., Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Latash, M. L. (2011). Age-related changes in optimality and motor variability: An example of multifinger redundant tasks. Experimental Brain Research, 212, 1–18. Rein, R., Bril, B., & Nonaka, T. (2013). Coordination strategies used in stone knapping: Coordination strategies used in stone knapping. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 150, 539–550. Reisman, D. S., Scholz, J. P., & Schöner, G. (2002). Coordination underlying the control of whole body momentum during sit-to-stand. Gait & Posture, 15, 45–55. Scholz, J. P., Kang, N., Patterson, D., & Latash, M. L. (2003). Uncontrolled manifold analysis of single trials during multi-finger force production by persons with and without down syndrome. Experimental Brain Research, 153, 45–58. Scholz, J. P., Dwight-Higgin, T., Lynch, J. E., Tseng, Y. W., Martin, V., & Schöner, G. (2011). Motor equivalence and self-motion induced by different movement speeds. Experimental Brain Research, 209, 319–332. Scholz, J. P., Reisman, D., & Schöner, G. (2001). Effects of varying task constraints on solutions to joint coordination in a sit-to-stand task. Experimental Brain Research, 141, 485–500. Scholz, J. P., & Sch Schöner, G. (1999). The uncontrolled manifold concept: Identifying control variables for a functional task. Experimental Brain Research, 126, 289–306. Scholz, J. P., Schöner, G., & Latash, M. L. (2000). Identifying the control structure of multijoint coordination during pistol shooting. Experimental Brain Research, 135, 382–404. Schöner, G. (1995). Recent developments and problems in human movement science and their conceptual implications. Ecological Psychology, 7, 291–314. Schwartz, M. H., & Rozumalski, A. (2005). A new method for estimating joint parameters from motion data. Journal of Biomechanics, 38, 107–116. Scott, M. A., Li, F.-X., & Davids, K. (1997). Expertise and the regulation of gait in the approach phase of the long jump.pdf. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15, 597–605. Sinclair, J., Currigan, G., Fewtrell, D. J., & Taylor, P. J. (2014). Biomechanical correlates of club-head velocity during the golf swing. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14, 54–63. Tucker, C. B., Anderson, R., & Kenny, I. C. (2013). Is outcome related to movement variability in golf? Sports Biomechanics, 1–12. Verrel, J., Lövdén, M., & Lindenberger, U. (2012). Normal aging reduces motor synergies in manual pointing. Neurobiology of Aging, 33. 200.e1–200.e10. Vint, P. F., & Hinrichs, R. N. (1996). Endpoint error in smoothing and differentiating raw kinematic data: An evaluation of four popular methods. Journal of Biomechanics, 29, 1637–1642. Winter, D. A. (2009). Biomechanics and motor control of human movement (4th ed.). Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. Wu, Y.-H., & Latash, M. L. (2014). The effects of practice on coordination. Exercise and Sport Sciences Review, 42, 37–42. Wu, Y.-H., Pazin, N., Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Latash, M. L. (2012). Practicing elements versus practicing coordination: Changes in the structure of variance. Journal of Motor Behavior, 44, 471–478. Wu, Y.-H., Truglio, T. S., Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Latash, M. L. (2015). Learning to combine variability with high precision: Lack of transfer to a different task. Journal of Motor Behavior, 47, 153–165. Yang, J.-F., & Scholz, J. P. (2005). Learning a throwing task is associated with differential changes in the use of motor abundance. Experimental Brain Research,163, 137–158. Zheng, N., Barrentine, S. W., Fleisig, G. S., & Andrews, J. R. (2008). Kinematic analysis of pro and amateur golfers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29, 487–493.

PY - 2016/4/30

Y1 - 2016/4/30

N2 - Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. Thisstudy investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of highand intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The varianceparallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and locationof the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher valuesof VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy wasfound in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variablesbut not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has beenpreviously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skilllevels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with morecontrol exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggestthat to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but maylie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body.

AB - Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. Thisstudy investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of highand intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The varianceparallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and locationof the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher valuesof VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy wasfound in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variablesbut not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has beenpreviously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skilllevels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with morecontrol exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggestthat to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but maylie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body.

KW - Golf

KW - Synergy

KW - Redundancy

KW - Kinematics

KW - Coordination

U2 - 10.1016/j.humov.2016.01.009

DO - 10.1016/j.humov.2016.01.009

M3 - Article

VL - 46

SP - 129

EP - 147

JO - Human Movement Science

T2 - Human Movement Science

JF - Human Movement Science

SN - 0167-9457

ER -