Counter-knowledge refers to flaws in citizens’ mental models arising from utilization of rumours, inappropriate knowledge structures, outdated routines or procedures. When counter-knowledge is applied to civil servants, it may result in problems of efficiency, equity and motivation. The European Commission suggests that civil servants should not be biased and should be open-minded, guided by evidence, and willing to hear different point of views. A city marketing plan constitutes a tool that supports the creation and storage of valuable knowledge. This paper examines the relationship between counter-knowledge and open-mindedness to model a framework for improving city marketing and policy development. These relationships are examined through an empirical investigation of 203 Spanish City Halls.
- city marketing
- policy development