Modelling and numerical simulation of permeated hydrogen dispersion in a garage with adiabatic walls and still air

Jean-Bernard Saffers, Dmitriy Makarov, Vladimir Molkov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The dispersion of permeated hydrogen from a storage tank in a typical garage with adiabaticwalls and still air is studied analytically and numerically. Numerical simulations areperformed based on an original approach of a hydrogen mass source term introduction inthe hydrogen conservation equation in control volumes around the tank surface. Themaximum hydrogen concentration in an enclosure is always on the top surface of the tankand never reaches 100% by volume. Both the analytical analysis and numerical simulationshave demonstrated that diffusion and buoyancy contributions to the hydrogen transportfrom the tank surface are balanced within 1 min from the start of the process. The quasisteadystate conditions within the enclosure with approximately linear distribution ofhydrogen from the top to the bottom are established in about 1 h for both consideredpermeation rates: 1 NmL/hr/L of tank capacity and 45 NmL/hr/L the last being an equivalentto the SAE J2578 requirements. Finally, the numerical simulations demonstrated thatthe difference in hydrogen concentration between the garage ceiling and floor is negligiblecompared to the lower flammability limit of 4% by volume of hydrogen.
LanguageEnglish
Pages2582-2588
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume36
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Hydrogen
air
Computer simulation
hydrogen
Air
simulation
enclosure
Enclosures
storage tanks
flammability
ceilings
conservation equations
Ceilings
Flammability
Buoyancy
buoyancy
Conservation
requirements

Cite this

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title = "Modelling and numerical simulation of permeated hydrogen dispersion in a garage with adiabatic walls and still air",
abstract = "The dispersion of permeated hydrogen from a storage tank in a typical garage with adiabaticwalls and still air is studied analytically and numerically. Numerical simulations areperformed based on an original approach of a hydrogen mass source term introduction inthe hydrogen conservation equation in control volumes around the tank surface. Themaximum hydrogen concentration in an enclosure is always on the top surface of the tankand never reaches 100{\%} by volume. Both the analytical analysis and numerical simulationshave demonstrated that diffusion and buoyancy contributions to the hydrogen transportfrom the tank surface are balanced within 1 min from the start of the process. The quasisteadystate conditions within the enclosure with approximately linear distribution ofhydrogen from the top to the bottom are established in about 1 h for both consideredpermeation rates: 1 NmL/hr/L of tank capacity and 45 NmL/hr/L the last being an equivalentto the SAE J2578 requirements. Finally, the numerical simulations demonstrated thatthe difference in hydrogen concentration between the garage ceiling and floor is negligiblecompared to the lower flammability limit of 4{\%} by volume of hydrogen.",
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Modelling and numerical simulation of permeated hydrogen dispersion in a garage with adiabatic walls and still air. / Saffers, Jean-Bernard; Makarov, Dmitriy; Molkov, Vladimir.

Vol. 36, No. 3, 2011, p. 2582-2588.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

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AU - Saffers, Jean-Bernard

AU - Makarov, Dmitriy

AU - Molkov, Vladimir

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N2 - The dispersion of permeated hydrogen from a storage tank in a typical garage with adiabaticwalls and still air is studied analytically and numerically. Numerical simulations areperformed based on an original approach of a hydrogen mass source term introduction inthe hydrogen conservation equation in control volumes around the tank surface. Themaximum hydrogen concentration in an enclosure is always on the top surface of the tankand never reaches 100% by volume. Both the analytical analysis and numerical simulationshave demonstrated that diffusion and buoyancy contributions to the hydrogen transportfrom the tank surface are balanced within 1 min from the start of the process. The quasisteadystate conditions within the enclosure with approximately linear distribution ofhydrogen from the top to the bottom are established in about 1 h for both consideredpermeation rates: 1 NmL/hr/L of tank capacity and 45 NmL/hr/L the last being an equivalentto the SAE J2578 requirements. Finally, the numerical simulations demonstrated thatthe difference in hydrogen concentration between the garage ceiling and floor is negligiblecompared to the lower flammability limit of 4% by volume of hydrogen.

AB - The dispersion of permeated hydrogen from a storage tank in a typical garage with adiabaticwalls and still air is studied analytically and numerically. Numerical simulations areperformed based on an original approach of a hydrogen mass source term introduction inthe hydrogen conservation equation in control volumes around the tank surface. Themaximum hydrogen concentration in an enclosure is always on the top surface of the tankand never reaches 100% by volume. Both the analytical analysis and numerical simulationshave demonstrated that diffusion and buoyancy contributions to the hydrogen transportfrom the tank surface are balanced within 1 min from the start of the process. The quasisteadystate conditions within the enclosure with approximately linear distribution ofhydrogen from the top to the bottom are established in about 1 h for both consideredpermeation rates: 1 NmL/hr/L of tank capacity and 45 NmL/hr/L the last being an equivalentto the SAE J2578 requirements. Finally, the numerical simulations demonstrated thatthe difference in hydrogen concentration between the garage ceiling and floor is negligiblecompared to the lower flammability limit of 4% by volume of hydrogen.

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