Modeling and Prediction of Residual Stresses in Additive Layer Manufacturing by Microplasma Transferred Arc Process Using Finite Element Simulation

Sagar H. Nikam, N. K. Jain

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Prediction of residual stresses induced by any additive layer manufacturing process greatly helps in preventing thermal cracking and distortion formed in the substrate and deposition material. This paper presents the development of a model for the prediction of residual stresses using three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D-FES) and their experimental validation in a single-track and double-track deposition of Ti-6Al-4V powder on AISI 4130 substrate by the microplasma transferred arc (μ-PTA) powder deposition process. It involved 3D-FES of the temperature distribution and thermal cycles that were validated experimentally using three K-type thermocouples mounted along the deposition direction. Temperature distribution, thermal cycles, and residual stresses are predicted in terms of the μ-PTA process parameters and temperature-dependent properties of substrate and deposition materials. Influence of a number of deposition tracks on the residual stresses is also studied. Results reveal that (i) tensile residual stress is higher at the bonding between the deposition and substrate and attains a minimum value at the midpoint of a deposition track; (ii) maximum tensile residual stress occurs in the substrate material at its interface with deposition track. This primarily causes distortion and thermal cracks; (iii) maximum compressive residual stress occurs approximately at mid-height of the substrate material; and (iv) deposition of a subsequent track relieves tensile residual stress induced by the previously deposited track.

Original languageEnglish
Article number061003
Journal Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Issue number6
Early online date12 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019


  • additive manufacturing
  • residual stresses
  • Ti-6Al-4V
  • multitrack deposition
  • microplasma
  • 3D-FES

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