The gut microbiome consists of trillions of bacteria and other microbes whose metabolic activities and interactions with the immune system go beyond the gut itself. We are all aware that bacteria and other microorganisms have a significant impact on our health. Also, the health of the bacteria directly reflects the health status of the body where they reside. Eventually, alterations in the microbiome at different sites of a body are associated with many different diseases such as obesity, IBD, malnutrition, CVD, etc. Microbiota directly or indirectly affects the heart with the formation of plaques in the blood vessels, and cell walls become prone to lesion development. This ultimately leads to heightening the overall inflammatory status via increased bacterial translocation. Metabolites derived from the gut microbial metabolism of choline, phosphatidylcholine, and L-carnitine directly contribute to CVD pathology. These dietary nutrients have trimethylamine (TMA) moiety, which participates in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease. The objective of this review was to examine various metabolic pathways regulated by the gut microbiome that appear to alter heart function and lead to the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases, as well as how to target the gut microbiome for a healthier heart. In this review, we also discussed various clinical drugs having crosstalk between microbiota and heart and clinical trials for the gut-heart microbiome.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets|
|Publication status||Published (in print/issue) - 24 Jun 2022|
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- Gut microbiome
- cardiovascular disease
- gut dysbiosis
- heart failure