Microbiological Evaluation of 5 L- and 20 L-Transparent Polypropylene Buckets for Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)

Inmaculada Polo, Azahara Martinez-Garcia, Maria Jesus Abeledo-Lamerio, Hipolito Gomez-Couao, Elvira Ares-Mazas, Aurora Rebordeo-Fernandez, Tracy D. Morse, Lyndon Buck, Kingsley Lungu, Kevin G. McGuigan, Pilar Fernandez-Ibanez

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Background: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an appropriate technology for household treatment of drinking water in low-to-middle-income communities, as it is effective, low cost and easy to use. Nevertheless, uptake is low due partially to the burden of using small volume polyethylene terephthalate bottles (1.5–2 L). A major challenge is to develop a low-cost transparent container for disinfecting larger volumes of water. (2) Methods: This study examines the capability of transparent polypropylene (PP) buckets of 5 L- and 20 L- volume as SODIS containers using three waterborne pathogen indicators: Escherichia coli, MS2-phage and Cryptosporidium parvum. (3) Results: Similar inactivation kinetics were observed under natural sunlight for the inactivation of all three organisms in well water using 5 L- and 20 L-buckets compared to 1.5 L-polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles. The PP materials were exposed to natural and accelerated solar ageing (ISO-16474). UV transmission of the 20 L-buckets remained stable and with physical integrity even after the longest ageing periods (9 months or 900 h of natural or artificial solar UV exposure, respectively). The 5 L-buckets were physically degraded and lost significant UV-transmission, due to the thinner wall compared to the 20 L-bucket. (4) Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 20 L SODIS bucket technology produces excellent bacterial, viral and protozoan inactivation and is obtained using a simple transparent polypropylene bucket fabricated locally at very low cost ($2.90 USD per unit). The increased bucket volume of 20 L allows for a ten-fold increase in treatment batch volume and can thus more easily provide for the drinking water requirements of most households. The use of buckets in households across low to middle income countries is an already accepted practice.
    LanguageEnglish
    Article number2193
    Pages1-14
    Number of pages14
    JournalMolecules
    Volume24
    Issue number11
    Early online date11 Jun 2019
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Jun 2019

    Fingerprint

    buckets
    Polypropylenes
    Disinfection
    polypropylene
    disinfection
    Water
    evaluation
    Polyethylene Terephthalates
    water
    Bottles
    Costs and Cost Analysis
    Drinking Water
    Containers
    deactivation
    Aging of materials
    drinking water
    income
    cost
    Coliphages
    Virus Inactivation

    Keywords

    • drinking water
    • household water treatment and storage
    • SODIS
    • E. coli
    • MS2-phage
    • Cryptosporidium
    • Drinking water
    • Household water treatment and storage

    Cite this

    Polo, I., Martinez-Garcia, A., Abeledo-Lamerio, M. J., Gomez-Couao, H., Ares-Mazas, E., Rebordeo-Fernandez, A., ... Fernandez-Ibanez, P. (2019). Microbiological Evaluation of 5 L- and 20 L-Transparent Polypropylene Buckets for Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS). Molecules, 24(11), 1-14. [2193]. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112193
    Polo, Inmaculada ; Martinez-Garcia, Azahara ; Abeledo-Lamerio, Maria Jesus ; Gomez-Couao, Hipolito ; Ares-Mazas, Elvira ; Rebordeo-Fernandez, Aurora ; Morse, Tracy D. ; Buck, Lyndon ; Lungu, Kingsley ; McGuigan, Kevin G. ; Fernandez-Ibanez, Pilar. / Microbiological Evaluation of 5 L- and 20 L-Transparent Polypropylene Buckets for Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS). In: Molecules. 2019 ; Vol. 24, No. 11. pp. 1-14.
    @article{90c58c8ea6174a2fa8c896bfe91ed4d1,
    title = "Microbiological Evaluation of 5 L- and 20 L-Transparent Polypropylene Buckets for Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)",
    abstract = "Background: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an appropriate technology for household treatment of drinking water in low-to-middle-income communities, as it is effective, low cost and easy to use. Nevertheless, uptake is low due partially to the burden of using small volume polyethylene terephthalate bottles (1.5–2 L). A major challenge is to develop a low-cost transparent container for disinfecting larger volumes of water. (2) Methods: This study examines the capability of transparent polypropylene (PP) buckets of 5 L- and 20 L- volume as SODIS containers using three waterborne pathogen indicators: Escherichia coli, MS2-phage and Cryptosporidium parvum. (3) Results: Similar inactivation kinetics were observed under natural sunlight for the inactivation of all three organisms in well water using 5 L- and 20 L-buckets compared to 1.5 L-polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles. The PP materials were exposed to natural and accelerated solar ageing (ISO-16474). UV transmission of the 20 L-buckets remained stable and with physical integrity even after the longest ageing periods (9 months or 900 h of natural or artificial solar UV exposure, respectively). The 5 L-buckets were physically degraded and lost significant UV-transmission, due to the thinner wall compared to the 20 L-bucket. (4) Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 20 L SODIS bucket technology produces excellent bacterial, viral and protozoan inactivation and is obtained using a simple transparent polypropylene bucket fabricated locally at very low cost ($2.90 USD per unit). The increased bucket volume of 20 L allows for a ten-fold increase in treatment batch volume and can thus more easily provide for the drinking water requirements of most households. The use of buckets in households across low to middle income countries is an already accepted practice.",
    keywords = "drinking water, household water treatment and storage, SODIS, E. coli, MS2-phage, Cryptosporidium, Drinking water, Household water treatment and storage",
    author = "Inmaculada Polo and Azahara Martinez-Garcia and Abeledo-Lamerio, {Maria Jesus} and Hipolito Gomez-Couao and Elvira Ares-Mazas and Aurora Rebordeo-Fernandez and Morse, {Tracy D.} and Lyndon Buck and Kingsley Lungu and McGuigan, {Kevin G.} and Pilar Fernandez-Ibanez",
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    Polo, I, Martinez-Garcia, A, Abeledo-Lamerio, MJ, Gomez-Couao, H, Ares-Mazas, E, Rebordeo-Fernandez, A, Morse, TD, Buck, L, Lungu, K, McGuigan, KG & Fernandez-Ibanez, P 2019, 'Microbiological Evaluation of 5 L- and 20 L-Transparent Polypropylene Buckets for Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)', Molecules, vol. 24, no. 11, 2193, pp. 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112193

    Microbiological Evaluation of 5 L- and 20 L-Transparent Polypropylene Buckets for Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS). / Polo, Inmaculada; Martinez-Garcia, Azahara; Abeledo-Lamerio, Maria Jesus; Gomez-Couao, Hipolito; Ares-Mazas, Elvira; Rebordeo-Fernandez, Aurora; Morse, Tracy D.; Buck, Lyndon; Lungu, Kingsley; McGuigan, Kevin G.; Fernandez-Ibanez, Pilar.

    In: Molecules, Vol. 24, No. 11, 2193, 11.06.2019, p. 1-14.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Microbiological Evaluation of 5 L- and 20 L-Transparent Polypropylene Buckets for Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)

    AU - Polo, Inmaculada

    AU - Martinez-Garcia, Azahara

    AU - Abeledo-Lamerio, Maria Jesus

    AU - Gomez-Couao, Hipolito

    AU - Ares-Mazas, Elvira

    AU - Rebordeo-Fernandez, Aurora

    AU - Morse, Tracy D.

    AU - Buck, Lyndon

    AU - Lungu, Kingsley

    AU - McGuigan, Kevin G.

    AU - Fernandez-Ibanez, Pilar

    PY - 2019/6/11

    Y1 - 2019/6/11

    N2 - Background: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an appropriate technology for household treatment of drinking water in low-to-middle-income communities, as it is effective, low cost and easy to use. Nevertheless, uptake is low due partially to the burden of using small volume polyethylene terephthalate bottles (1.5–2 L). A major challenge is to develop a low-cost transparent container for disinfecting larger volumes of water. (2) Methods: This study examines the capability of transparent polypropylene (PP) buckets of 5 L- and 20 L- volume as SODIS containers using three waterborne pathogen indicators: Escherichia coli, MS2-phage and Cryptosporidium parvum. (3) Results: Similar inactivation kinetics were observed under natural sunlight for the inactivation of all three organisms in well water using 5 L- and 20 L-buckets compared to 1.5 L-polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles. The PP materials were exposed to natural and accelerated solar ageing (ISO-16474). UV transmission of the 20 L-buckets remained stable and with physical integrity even after the longest ageing periods (9 months or 900 h of natural or artificial solar UV exposure, respectively). The 5 L-buckets were physically degraded and lost significant UV-transmission, due to the thinner wall compared to the 20 L-bucket. (4) Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 20 L SODIS bucket technology produces excellent bacterial, viral and protozoan inactivation and is obtained using a simple transparent polypropylene bucket fabricated locally at very low cost ($2.90 USD per unit). The increased bucket volume of 20 L allows for a ten-fold increase in treatment batch volume and can thus more easily provide for the drinking water requirements of most households. The use of buckets in households across low to middle income countries is an already accepted practice.

    AB - Background: Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is an appropriate technology for household treatment of drinking water in low-to-middle-income communities, as it is effective, low cost and easy to use. Nevertheless, uptake is low due partially to the burden of using small volume polyethylene terephthalate bottles (1.5–2 L). A major challenge is to develop a low-cost transparent container for disinfecting larger volumes of water. (2) Methods: This study examines the capability of transparent polypropylene (PP) buckets of 5 L- and 20 L- volume as SODIS containers using three waterborne pathogen indicators: Escherichia coli, MS2-phage and Cryptosporidium parvum. (3) Results: Similar inactivation kinetics were observed under natural sunlight for the inactivation of all three organisms in well water using 5 L- and 20 L-buckets compared to 1.5 L-polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles. The PP materials were exposed to natural and accelerated solar ageing (ISO-16474). UV transmission of the 20 L-buckets remained stable and with physical integrity even after the longest ageing periods (9 months or 900 h of natural or artificial solar UV exposure, respectively). The 5 L-buckets were physically degraded and lost significant UV-transmission, due to the thinner wall compared to the 20 L-bucket. (4) Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 20 L SODIS bucket technology produces excellent bacterial, viral and protozoan inactivation and is obtained using a simple transparent polypropylene bucket fabricated locally at very low cost ($2.90 USD per unit). The increased bucket volume of 20 L allows for a ten-fold increase in treatment batch volume and can thus more easily provide for the drinking water requirements of most households. The use of buckets in households across low to middle income countries is an already accepted practice.

    KW - drinking water

    KW - household water treatment and storage

    KW - SODIS

    KW - E. coli

    KW - MS2-phage

    KW - Cryptosporidium

    KW - Drinking water

    KW - Household water treatment and storage

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    U2 - 10.3390/molecules24112193

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    Polo I, Martinez-Garcia A, Abeledo-Lamerio MJ, Gomez-Couao H, Ares-Mazas E, Rebordeo-Fernandez A et al. Microbiological Evaluation of 5 L- and 20 L-Transparent Polypropylene Buckets for Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS). Molecules. 2019 Jun 11;24(11):1-14. 2193. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112193