Metal free, end-opened, selective nitrogen-doped vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by a single step in situ low energy plasma process

GRS Iyer, PD Maguire

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12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report a novel single step in situ process of growth and nitrogen-electron cyclotron resonance plasma treatment of vertically aligned multi walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) that leads to concurrent end opening by metal cap removal, nitrogen incorporation and intercalation along with substitution at graphitic sites resulting in n-type electronic doping. Microscopic and spectroscopic evaluations of the nitrogen treated MWCNTs reveal negligible iron content with significant conservation of both structure and alignment. The nitrogen induced electronic change increases distinct π* states as evidenced by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and 5 cm−1 downshift of G-band, as observed from Raman spectroscopy, confirm n-type doping. The combined effect of plasma activation (both cavities and surface of the end opened VA-MWCNTs) and n-type doping enhances the field emission performance of the CNTs resulting in high current density (15 mA cm−2) at low applied voltage of 1.5 V μm−1 with low turn on and threshold electric fields (Eto-0.52 and Eth-0.76 V μm−1). This low energy highly controllable plasma has great implications not only in the fabrication of various n-type materials and bio related application but also many other interesting areas for cost effective energy related applications.
LanguageEnglish
Pages16162-16169
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry
Volume21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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Carbon Nanotubes
Nitrogen
Metals
Doping (additives)
Plasmas
Nitrogen removal
Electron cyclotron resonance
X ray absorption
Intercalation
Field emission
Raman spectroscopy
Conservation
Substitution reactions
Current density
Iron
Chemical activation
Electric fields
Fabrication
Electric potential
Costs

Cite this

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title = "Metal free, end-opened, selective nitrogen-doped vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by a single step in situ low energy plasma process",
abstract = "We report a novel single step in situ process of growth and nitrogen-electron cyclotron resonance plasma treatment of vertically aligned multi walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) that leads to concurrent end opening by metal cap removal, nitrogen incorporation and intercalation along with substitution at graphitic sites resulting in n-type electronic doping. Microscopic and spectroscopic evaluations of the nitrogen treated MWCNTs reveal negligible iron content with significant conservation of both structure and alignment. The nitrogen induced electronic change increases distinct π* states as evidenced by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and 5 cm−1 downshift of G-band, as observed from Raman spectroscopy, confirm n-type doping. The combined effect of plasma activation (both cavities and surface of the end opened VA-MWCNTs) and n-type doping enhances the field emission performance of the CNTs resulting in high current density (15 mA cm−2) at low applied voltage of 1.5 V μm−1 with low turn on and threshold electric fields (Eto-0.52 and Eth-0.76 V μm−1). This low energy highly controllable plasma has great implications not only in the fabrication of various n-type materials and bio related application but also many other interesting areas for cost effective energy related applications.",
author = "GRS Iyer and PD Maguire",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1039/C1JM12829A",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "16162--16169",
journal = "Journal of Materials Chemistry",
issn = "0959-9428",
publisher = "Royal Society of Chemistry",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Metal free, end-opened, selective nitrogen-doped vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by a single step in situ low energy plasma process

AU - Iyer, GRS

AU - Maguire, PD

PY - 2011

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N2 - We report a novel single step in situ process of growth and nitrogen-electron cyclotron resonance plasma treatment of vertically aligned multi walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) that leads to concurrent end opening by metal cap removal, nitrogen incorporation and intercalation along with substitution at graphitic sites resulting in n-type electronic doping. Microscopic and spectroscopic evaluations of the nitrogen treated MWCNTs reveal negligible iron content with significant conservation of both structure and alignment. The nitrogen induced electronic change increases distinct π* states as evidenced by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and 5 cm−1 downshift of G-band, as observed from Raman spectroscopy, confirm n-type doping. The combined effect of plasma activation (both cavities and surface of the end opened VA-MWCNTs) and n-type doping enhances the field emission performance of the CNTs resulting in high current density (15 mA cm−2) at low applied voltage of 1.5 V μm−1 with low turn on and threshold electric fields (Eto-0.52 and Eth-0.76 V μm−1). This low energy highly controllable plasma has great implications not only in the fabrication of various n-type materials and bio related application but also many other interesting areas for cost effective energy related applications.

AB - We report a novel single step in situ process of growth and nitrogen-electron cyclotron resonance plasma treatment of vertically aligned multi walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) that leads to concurrent end opening by metal cap removal, nitrogen incorporation and intercalation along with substitution at graphitic sites resulting in n-type electronic doping. Microscopic and spectroscopic evaluations of the nitrogen treated MWCNTs reveal negligible iron content with significant conservation of both structure and alignment. The nitrogen induced electronic change increases distinct π* states as evidenced by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and 5 cm−1 downshift of G-band, as observed from Raman spectroscopy, confirm n-type doping. The combined effect of plasma activation (both cavities and surface of the end opened VA-MWCNTs) and n-type doping enhances the field emission performance of the CNTs resulting in high current density (15 mA cm−2) at low applied voltage of 1.5 V μm−1 with low turn on and threshold electric fields (Eto-0.52 and Eth-0.76 V μm−1). This low energy highly controllable plasma has great implications not only in the fabrication of various n-type materials and bio related application but also many other interesting areas for cost effective energy related applications.

U2 - 10.1039/C1JM12829A

DO - 10.1039/C1JM12829A

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 16162

EP - 16169

JO - Journal of Materials Chemistry

T2 - Journal of Materials Chemistry

JF - Journal of Materials Chemistry

SN - 0959-9428

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