Metabolic syndrome is associated with prostate enlargement: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression on patients with lower urinary tract symptom factors

A Omran, BM Leca, E Ostarijas, N Graham, AS Da Silva, ZM Zair, AD Miras, CW le Roux, RP Vincent, L Cardozo, GK Dimitriadis

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Abstract

Background:
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined by at least three of the following five criteria: blood pressure ⩾130/85 mmHg, fasting blood glucose ⩾5.6 mmol/l, triglycerides concentration ⩾1.7 mmol/l, waist circumference ⩾102 cm (for men), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration

Materials and Methods:
MEDLINE, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov, and SCOPUS were critically appraised for all peer-reviewed manuscripts that suitably fulfilled our protocol’s inclusion criteria established a priori. Meta-analytical and meta-regression calculations were performed in R using the Sidik–Jonkman and Hartung–Knapp random effects model and predefined covariates.

Results:
A total of 70 studies (n = 90,206) were included in qualitative synthesis. From these, 60 studies focused on MetS and LUTS: 44 reported positive correlations, 5 reported negative correlations, 11 reported no association, and 10 studies focused on MetS and total prostate volume (TPV). MetS positively correlated with moderate LUTS [odds ratio (OR)  = 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.35–1.80], severe LUTS (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.82–3.03), overactive bladder (OAB; OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.6–5.8), and nocturia severity (OR = 2.509, 95% CI = 1.571–4.007) at multivariate analysis. A total of 30 studies (n = 22,206) were included in meta-analysis; MetS was significantly associated with higher TPV (mean differences = 4.4450 ml, 95% CI = 2.0177–6.8723), but no significant predictive factors for effect sizes were discovered.

Conclusion:
Our meta-analysis demonstrates a significant association between the aggravating effects of MetS, which commonly coexists with obesity and benign prostate enlargement.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-29
Number of pages29
JournalTHERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM
Volume12
Early online date8 Dec 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished online - 8 Dec 2021

Keywords

  • lower urinary tract symptoms
  • meta-analysis
  • metabolic syndrome
  • obesity
  • systematic review
  • total prostate volume

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