BACKGROUND: Obesity surgery has pronounced effects on metabolic profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, reports on long-term remission rates based on the standardised and holistic criteria by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and effects on T2DM microvascular complications are scarce in the literature. In this retrospective clinical trial, our objectives were to assess these variables 5 years after surgery. METHODS: Clinical data and direct measurements of renal and retinal damage were collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively for 82 patients with T2DM who underwent obesity surgery and were followed up for 5 years. RESULTS: The cohort of 82 patients with T2DM that were followed up 5 years after obesity surgery was predominantly female (71 with a median age of 51 years, weight of 133.5 kg, BMI of 46.8 kg/m2 and pre-operative duration of T2DM of 8 years; 6controlled T2DM, 57insulin treatment and 37operatively. Of the total 82 patients, 59 patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 15 sleeve gastrectomy and 8 patients underwent gastric band operations. At 5 years, 55creatinine ratio in 22 patients with pre-existing albuminuria (follow-up data available for 64 patients) and an overall stabilisation of retinopathy in 24 patients with retinal images available at 5 years. CONCLUSION: Whilst the findings on microvascular complications are encouraging, the rates of metabolic remission were lower than expected and raise the need for validated protocols to assist clinicians in managing these patients more aggressively post-operatively to achieve optimum cardio-metabolic risk factor control and hopefully further reduction in microvascular and macrovascular complications.