Method: Data from nationally representative surveys in UK, Ireland, Spain, and Italy (combined N = 6,054) were used to fit confirmatory factor analytic and multiple-indictor multiple-causes models.
Results: Spain and Italy had higher latent variable means than the UK and Ireland for both anxiety and depression, but there was no evidence for differential items functioning.
Conclusions: The PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores were found to be unidimensional, reliable, and largely free of DIF in data from four large nationally representative samples of the general population in the UK, Ireland, Italy and Spain.
|Early online date||1 Mar 2022|
|Publication status||Published online - 1 Mar 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Ireland: The Irish strand of this study was funded by the Health Research Board and the Irish Research Council under the COVID-19 Pandemic Rapid Response Funding Call [COV19-2020-025] awarded to PH.
UK: The initial stages of this project were supported by start-up funds from the University of Sheffield (Department of Psychology, the Sheffield Methods Institute and the Higher Education Innovation Fund via an Impact Acceleration grant administered by the university) and by the Faculty of Life and Health Sciences at Ulster University. The research was subsequently supported by UK Research and Innovation/Economic and Social Research Council funding (grant ref. ES/V004379/1) and awarded to RPB, TKH, LL, JGM, MS, JM, OM, KB and LM.
Spain: This research was supported by grants from the Ministry of Science and Innovation (PSI2016-74987-P) and Instituto de Salud Carlos III (COV20/00737) to Carmen Valiente and funds from the UCM for consolidated research groups (GR29/20) to Carmelo Vazquez.
Italy: This research was funded by the University “La Sapienza” of Roma and the Department of General Psychology of the University of Padua.
© 2022, The Author(s).
- Measurement invariance
- Patient Health Questionnaire
- Surveys and Questionnaires
- Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis
- Measurement Invariance
- Depressive Disorder, Major