Mass burning rate and merging behaviour of double liquid pool fires under cross winds

Fei Tang, Lei Deng, Qing He, Jianping Zhang

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13 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper experimentally investigates the effects of cross wind on flame interaction and burning characteristics of double liquid pool fires. Two burners were used including a square burner and a line burner. The separation distance between the double fires and the speed of cross wind were varied, providing a total of 66 test conditions. The experimental results showed that the mass burning rate increases initially with increasing separation distance until a critical value, after which the mass burning rate decreases with a further increase of the separation distance. This non-monotonic behaviour was attributed to the competition between an increase of air entrainment and a decrease of the flame heat feedback from the adjacent fire, as the separation distance increases. A correlation was developed for the mass burning rate based on the stagnant layer solution of liquid fuel evaporation and combustion, incorporating the separation distance between two fires and cross wind, and is found to predict well the experimental data for all experiments. Image analysis indicated that, with increasing separation distance, the flame merging of double pool fires can be divided into three regimes: the continuous merging regime, the intermittent merging regime, and the non-merging regime. A physical model was proposed for the flame interaction and merging behaviour of the double pool fires, based on which a piecewise function is developed for predicting the flame merging probability and the criteria for the merging/non-merging flames are also determined. The proposed formulations were found to correlate well with the current measurements of liquid pool fires and published literature data of single pool fires.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4041-4052
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number3
Early online date17 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished online - 17 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 52076066 , CAS Pioneer Hundred Talents Program to Dr. Fei Tang, A nhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. 2208085J34 ), High-end Foreign Experts Introduction Plan Project and Leading Academic Talents Training Program of USTC to Dr. Fei Tang.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Burning rate
  • Flame merging probability
  • Two fires
  • Cross winds


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