Managing ecotourism: an opportunity spectrum approach

Stephen Boyd, Richard Butler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Over the past decade and a half, visitor management frameworks and procedures have been developed to address issues resulting from tourism and recreation use of areas. These have included the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), the Tourism Opportunity Spectrum (TOS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), Visitor Activities Management Planning (VAMP), and the Visitor Impact Monitoring Process (VIMP). This paper outlines a new framework, based on existing approaches, within which opportunity for ecotourism may be set. It incorporates and modifies ideas from the ROS and TOS to address ecotourism specifically, is termed the Ecotourism Opportunity Spectrum (ECOS) and contains eight components. The paper concludes with a discussion of the difficulties of assigning relative priorities to ecotourism activities in a region, and assessing the significance of the resulting environmental impacts.
LanguageEnglish
Pages557-566
JournalTourism Management
Volume17
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1996

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ecotourism
tourism
environmental impact
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Boyd, Stephen ; Butler, Richard. / Managing ecotourism: an opportunity spectrum approach. 1996 ; Vol. 17, No. 8. pp. 557-566.
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abstract = "Over the past decade and a half, visitor management frameworks and procedures have been developed to address issues resulting from tourism and recreation use of areas. These have included the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), the Tourism Opportunity Spectrum (TOS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), Visitor Activities Management Planning (VAMP), and the Visitor Impact Monitoring Process (VIMP). This paper outlines a new framework, based on existing approaches, within which opportunity for ecotourism may be set. It incorporates and modifies ideas from the ROS and TOS to address ecotourism specifically, is termed the Ecotourism Opportunity Spectrum (ECOS) and contains eight components. The paper concludes with a discussion of the difficulties of assigning relative priorities to ecotourism activities in a region, and assessing the significance of the resulting environmental impacts.",
author = "Stephen Boyd and Richard Butler",
note = "Reference text: IWhelan. T (cd) Nature Tourism: Managing/~r the Environment Island Press. Washington, DC (1991) -'Boo, E Ecotourism: The Potentials and f'itJalls Vols 1 and 2. World Wildlife Fund, Washington. DC 1199111 ~Dearden. P {"}Tourism in developing societies: some observations on trekking in the highlands of North Thailand{"} World Leisure and Recreation 1989 31 (4) 40-47 4de Groot. R S 'Tourism and conservation in the Galapagos Islands' Biological Conservation 1983 26 291-3(J11 SFennel[. D A and Eagles, P F J 'Ecotourism in Costa Rica: a conceptual framework{"} J Park and Recreation Administration 1990 8 (1) 23-34 ~Valentine. P S ~Review: nature-based tourism' in Weiler, B and Hall, C M Special Interest Tourism Bclhaven Press, London, ilk (1992) 105-127 VMarsh. J 'Tourism in Antarctica and its implications tor conservation{"} paper presented at the lVth Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas. Venezuela ( 19921 ~Boyd. S W, Butler, R W. Haider. W and Perera. A 'Identifying areas for ecotourism in Northern Ontario: application of a Geographic Information Systems methodology' J Applied Recreation Research 1994 19 (1) 41-66 '~Olinda, P ~The old man of nature tourism: Kenya' in Whclan, T Nature Tourism Managing ./br the Envir~mtnent, Island Press. Washington, DC ( 1991 ) 23-38 I(~Kenchington. I,'. A 'Tourism in the Galapagos Islands: the dilemma of consc rwttion' Environmental ('onserv,:~tion 1989 16 (3) 227-232 ~lDearden. P and Harron. S 'Tourism and the hilltribes ot Thailand{"} in Weiler. B and Hall, C M Special Interest Tourism Belhaven Press, London. UK (19921 96--1I,q ~2Clark. R N and Stankey, G H Fire Recreamm Opportunity Spectrum: A Frarnework ]~)r Planning, Management, attd Research US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report PNW-98 (1979) J~Butler, R W and Waldbrook. 1. A {"}A new planning tool: the Tourism Opportunity Spectrum' J Tourism Studies 1991 2 ( I ) 1-14 14Wood, M E, (;atz. F and Eindbcrg, K q'he ecotourism society: an action agenda{"} in Ecolourism attd Resource ('onservation. A collection of papers Vols I and II, Ecotourism and Resource Conservation Project. compiled by J A Kusler 119911 75-79 ~sWilson. M A and l.aarman. J G {"}Nature tourism and enterprise development in Ecuador{"} World Leisure and Rerreatiott 1988 29/30 ( 1 ) 22-27 ~'Ziffer. K Ecotourism: The Unea O' Alliance C~)nscrvation International and Ernst and Young, Washington. DC (1989) iTScace, R C. Grifone. E and Usher, R (SENTAR Consultants Ltd) Ecotourism in Canada Report produced for the Canadian Environmental Advisory Council, Onawa (19921 ~Lanc, B ;Sustainable tourism: a new concept for the interpreter{"} Interpretation 1991 49 2 mButler. R W {"}Integrating tourism and resource management: problems of complementarity' in Johnston. M ff and Hairier, W Communities, Resources, and Tourism itt the North Lakchead University. Centre for Northern Studies 11993) 221 236 565 Managing ecotourism: S W Boyd and R W Butler 2°Cater, E 'Ecotourism in the Third World: problems for sustainable tourism development' Tourism Management 1993 14 (2) 85-90 2~Lucas, R C 'Wilderness perception and use: the example of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area' Natural Resources 1964 3 (3) 394--411 a2Butler, R W, Fennell, D and Boyd, S Canadian Heritage Rivers Recreational Carrying Capacity Study Heritage Rivers Board, Environment Canada, Ottawa (1992) 23Stankey, G H and McCool, S F 'Carrying capacity in recreational settings: evolution, appraisal and application' Leisure Science 1986 6 (4) 453-473 Z4Shelby, B and Herberlein, T A 'A conceptual framework for carrying capacity determination{"} Leisure Sciences 1986 6 (4) 43.3-451 25Stankey, G H, Cole, D N, Lucas, R C, Peterson. M E and Frissell, S S The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) System for Wilderness Planning USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-176, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Odgen, Utah (1985) 2~McCool, S F and Stankey, G H 'Managing for the sustainable use of protected wildlands: the limits of acceptable change framework' paper presented at the IVth World Congress on Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela (1992) 27Graham, R, Nilsen, P and Payne, R J {"}Visitor management in Canadian National Parks' Tourism Management 1988 9 (1) 44--62 2SLoomis, L and Graefe, A R 'Overview of NPCA's visitor impact management process' paper presented at the IVth World Congress on Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela (1992) 2'~Fernie, K J 'Ecotourism: a conceptual framework from the ecotourist perspective' unpublished MSc thesis, Department of Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto (1993) 3°Twynam, D G and Robinson, D W A Market Segmentation Analysis of Desired Ecotourism Northern Ontario Developmcnt Agreement Project 4052, Final Report, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Lakehead University (1996) 3JLaarman, J G and Perdue, R R 'Science tourism in Costa Rica' Annals of Tourism Research 1989 16 2(15-215 3:Duffus, D A and Dearden, P {"}Nonconsumptive wildlifeoriented recreation: a conceptual framework' Biological Conservation 1990 53 213--231 33Eagles, P F J, Ballantine, J L and Fennell, D A {"}Marketing to the ecotourist: case studies from Kenya and Costa Rica{"} paper presented at the IVth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela (19921 34Smith, V Hosts and Guests University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (1987) 35Manning, R {"}Crowding norms in backcountry settings: a review and synthesis' J Leisure Research 1985 17 (2) 75-89 3~'Vaske, J J, Grafe. A R, Shelby, B and Heberlein, T A {"}Backcountry encounter norms: theory, method and empirical evidence' J Leisure Research 1986 18 (3) 137-153 37Vaske, J J, Donnelly, M P and Shelby. J 'Establishing management standards: selected examples of the normative approach' unpublished manuscript supplied by the principal author (1992) 3SButler, R W 'The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution and implications for management of resources' Canadian Geographer 1980 XXIV (I) 5-12 3~Dixon, J A, Scura, L F and Hof, T van't 'Meeting ecological and economic goals: marine parks in the Caribbean' Ambio 1993 XXII (2-3) 117--125 4°Wheeller, B 'Sustaining the ego' J Sustainable Tourism 1993 1 (2) 121-129 566",
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pages = "557--566",
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}

Managing ecotourism: an opportunity spectrum approach. / Boyd, Stephen; Butler, Richard.

Vol. 17, No. 8, 1996, p. 557-566.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Managing ecotourism: an opportunity spectrum approach

AU - Boyd, Stephen

AU - Butler, Richard

N1 - Reference text: IWhelan. T (cd) Nature Tourism: Managing/~r the Environment Island Press. Washington, DC (1991) -'Boo, E Ecotourism: The Potentials and f'itJalls Vols 1 and 2. World Wildlife Fund, Washington. DC 1199111 ~Dearden. P "Tourism in developing societies: some observations on trekking in the highlands of North Thailand" World Leisure and Recreation 1989 31 (4) 40-47 4de Groot. R S 'Tourism and conservation in the Galapagos Islands' Biological Conservation 1983 26 291-3(J11 SFennel[. D A and Eagles, P F J 'Ecotourism in Costa Rica: a conceptual framework" J Park and Recreation Administration 1990 8 (1) 23-34 ~Valentine. P S ~Review: nature-based tourism' in Weiler, B and Hall, C M Special Interest Tourism Bclhaven Press, London, ilk (1992) 105-127 VMarsh. J 'Tourism in Antarctica and its implications tor conservation" paper presented at the lVth Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas. Venezuela ( 19921 ~Boyd. S W, Butler, R W. Haider. W and Perera. A 'Identifying areas for ecotourism in Northern Ontario: application of a Geographic Information Systems methodology' J Applied Recreation Research 1994 19 (1) 41-66 '~Olinda, P ~The old man of nature tourism: Kenya' in Whclan, T Nature Tourism Managing ./br the Envir~mtnent, Island Press. Washington, DC ( 1991 ) 23-38 I(~Kenchington. I,'. A 'Tourism in the Galapagos Islands: the dilemma of consc rwttion' Environmental ('onserv,:~tion 1989 16 (3) 227-232 ~lDearden. P and Harron. S 'Tourism and the hilltribes ot Thailand" in Weiler. B and Hall, C M Special Interest Tourism Belhaven Press, London. UK (19921 96--1I,q ~2Clark. R N and Stankey, G H Fire Recreamm Opportunity Spectrum: A Frarnework ]~)r Planning, Management, attd Research US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, General Technical Report PNW-98 (1979) J~Butler, R W and Waldbrook. 1. A "A new planning tool: the Tourism Opportunity Spectrum' J Tourism Studies 1991 2 ( I ) 1-14 14Wood, M E, (;atz. F and Eindbcrg, K q'he ecotourism society: an action agenda" in Ecolourism attd Resource ('onservation. A collection of papers Vols I and II, Ecotourism and Resource Conservation Project. compiled by J A Kusler 119911 75-79 ~sWilson. M A and l.aarman. J G "Nature tourism and enterprise development in Ecuador" World Leisure and Rerreatiott 1988 29/30 ( 1 ) 22-27 ~'Ziffer. K Ecotourism: The Unea O' Alliance C~)nscrvation International and Ernst and Young, Washington. DC (1989) iTScace, R C. Grifone. E and Usher, R (SENTAR Consultants Ltd) Ecotourism in Canada Report produced for the Canadian Environmental Advisory Council, Onawa (19921 ~Lanc, B ;Sustainable tourism: a new concept for the interpreter" Interpretation 1991 49 2 mButler. R W "Integrating tourism and resource management: problems of complementarity' in Johnston. M ff and Hairier, W Communities, Resources, and Tourism itt the North Lakchead University. Centre for Northern Studies 11993) 221 236 565 Managing ecotourism: S W Boyd and R W Butler 2°Cater, E 'Ecotourism in the Third World: problems for sustainable tourism development' Tourism Management 1993 14 (2) 85-90 2~Lucas, R C 'Wilderness perception and use: the example of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area' Natural Resources 1964 3 (3) 394--411 a2Butler, R W, Fennell, D and Boyd, S Canadian Heritage Rivers Recreational Carrying Capacity Study Heritage Rivers Board, Environment Canada, Ottawa (1992) 23Stankey, G H and McCool, S F 'Carrying capacity in recreational settings: evolution, appraisal and application' Leisure Science 1986 6 (4) 453-473 Z4Shelby, B and Herberlein, T A 'A conceptual framework for carrying capacity determination" Leisure Sciences 1986 6 (4) 43.3-451 25Stankey, G H, Cole, D N, Lucas, R C, Peterson. M E and Frissell, S S The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) System for Wilderness Planning USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-176, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Odgen, Utah (1985) 2~McCool, S F and Stankey, G H 'Managing for the sustainable use of protected wildlands: the limits of acceptable change framework' paper presented at the IVth World Congress on Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela (1992) 27Graham, R, Nilsen, P and Payne, R J "Visitor management in Canadian National Parks' Tourism Management 1988 9 (1) 44--62 2SLoomis, L and Graefe, A R 'Overview of NPCA's visitor impact management process' paper presented at the IVth World Congress on Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela (1992) 2'~Fernie, K J 'Ecotourism: a conceptual framework from the ecotourist perspective' unpublished MSc thesis, Department of Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto (1993) 3°Twynam, D G and Robinson, D W A Market Segmentation Analysis of Desired Ecotourism Northern Ontario Developmcnt Agreement Project 4052, Final Report, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Lakehead University (1996) 3JLaarman, J G and Perdue, R R 'Science tourism in Costa Rica' Annals of Tourism Research 1989 16 2(15-215 3:Duffus, D A and Dearden, P "Nonconsumptive wildlifeoriented recreation: a conceptual framework' Biological Conservation 1990 53 213--231 33Eagles, P F J, Ballantine, J L and Fennell, D A "Marketing to the ecotourist: case studies from Kenya and Costa Rica" paper presented at the IVth World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela (19921 34Smith, V Hosts and Guests University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (1987) 35Manning, R "Crowding norms in backcountry settings: a review and synthesis' J Leisure Research 1985 17 (2) 75-89 3~'Vaske, J J, Grafe. A R, Shelby, B and Heberlein, T A "Backcountry encounter norms: theory, method and empirical evidence' J Leisure Research 1986 18 (3) 137-153 37Vaske, J J, Donnelly, M P and Shelby. J 'Establishing management standards: selected examples of the normative approach' unpublished manuscript supplied by the principal author (1992) 3SButler, R W 'The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution and implications for management of resources' Canadian Geographer 1980 XXIV (I) 5-12 3~Dixon, J A, Scura, L F and Hof, T van't 'Meeting ecological and economic goals: marine parks in the Caribbean' Ambio 1993 XXII (2-3) 117--125 4°Wheeller, B 'Sustaining the ego' J Sustainable Tourism 1993 1 (2) 121-129 566

PY - 1996

Y1 - 1996

N2 - Over the past decade and a half, visitor management frameworks and procedures have been developed to address issues resulting from tourism and recreation use of areas. These have included the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), the Tourism Opportunity Spectrum (TOS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), Visitor Activities Management Planning (VAMP), and the Visitor Impact Monitoring Process (VIMP). This paper outlines a new framework, based on existing approaches, within which opportunity for ecotourism may be set. It incorporates and modifies ideas from the ROS and TOS to address ecotourism specifically, is termed the Ecotourism Opportunity Spectrum (ECOS) and contains eight components. The paper concludes with a discussion of the difficulties of assigning relative priorities to ecotourism activities in a region, and assessing the significance of the resulting environmental impacts.

AB - Over the past decade and a half, visitor management frameworks and procedures have been developed to address issues resulting from tourism and recreation use of areas. These have included the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS), the Tourism Opportunity Spectrum (TOS), Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC), Visitor Activities Management Planning (VAMP), and the Visitor Impact Monitoring Process (VIMP). This paper outlines a new framework, based on existing approaches, within which opportunity for ecotourism may be set. It incorporates and modifies ideas from the ROS and TOS to address ecotourism specifically, is termed the Ecotourism Opportunity Spectrum (ECOS) and contains eight components. The paper concludes with a discussion of the difficulties of assigning relative priorities to ecotourism activities in a region, and assessing the significance of the resulting environmental impacts.

U2 - 10.1016/S0261-5177(96)00076-3

DO - 10.1016/S0261-5177(96)00076-3

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 557

EP - 566

IS - 8

ER -