Machine learning methods for the study of cybersickness: a systematic review

Alexander Hui Yang, Nikola Kasabov, Yusuf Cakmak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
51 Downloads (Pure)


This systematic review offers a world-first critical analysis of machine learning methods and systems, along with future directions for the study of cybersickness induced by virtual reality (VR). VR is becoming increasingly popular and is an important part of current advances in human training, therapies, entertainment, and access to the metaverse. Usage of this technology is limited by cybersickness, a common debilitating condition experienced upon VR immersion. Cybersickness is accompanied by a mix of symptoms including nausea, dizziness, fatigue and oculomotor disturbances. Machine learning can be used to identify cybersickness and is a step towards overcoming these physiological limitations. Practical implementation of this is possible with optimised data collection from wearable devices and appropriate algorithms that incorporate advanced machine learning approaches. The present systematic review focuses on 26 selected studies. These concern machine learning of biometric and neuro-physiological signals obtained from wearable devices for the automatic identification of cybersickness. The methods, data processing and machine learning architecture, as well as suggestions for future exploration on detection and prediction of cybersickness are explored. A wide range of immersion environments, participant activity, features and machine learning architectures were identified. Although models for cybersickness detection have been developed, literature still lacks a model for the prediction of first-instance events. Future research is pointed towards goal-oriented data selection and labelling, as well as the use of brain-inspired spiking neural network models to achieve better accuracy and understanding of complex spatio-temporal brain processes related to cybersickness.
Original languageEnglish
Article number24
Pages (from-to)1-25
Number of pages25
JournalBrain Informatics
Issue number1
Early online date9 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 9 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Review
  • Computational Intelligence
  • Cybersickness
  • Detection
  • Prediction
  • Biometrics
  • Physiological
  • Systematic
  • Machine learning
  • AI
  • Neural networks
  • Virtual reality
  • Extended reality
  • Simulator


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