Two billion people rely on freshwater sources that are faecally contaminated and half a million people die every year due to water and sanitation-related diseases, where they lack access to safe water. Therefore, the development of household water treatment and safe storage technologies (HWTS) to deliver safe potable water at household level is important. These technologies should be effective, available, affordable, and acceptable to the communities. This paper will discuss various HWTS that can effectively provide safe drinking water as determined by the WHO harmonized testing protocol for HWTS. According to this protocol, the technology shall be evaluated for microbiological performance against four specific reference pathogens,E.coli, two surrogate bacteriophages (MS2, phiX-174) and Cryptosporidiumparvuminfectiousoocysts. The technologies will be proven as highly protective if they can reduce 4-log the bacterial concentration, 5-log bacteriopaghes, and 4-log protozoa. The first field results will be presented concerning large-scale solar reactors for the disinfection of harvested rainwater based in South Africa and Uganda. These reactors provide treated water to over 500 pupils in two primary schools in Uganda, and to 54 people in two South African communities. The paper will also introduce the SAFEWATER project, which aims to develop low-cost systems for drinking water treatment at household level for rural communities in Colombia and Mexico.
The authors wish to acknowledge funding from the EU-H2020 Research and Impact (WATERSPOUTTGA:688928-2)
and the Global Challenges Research Fund UK Research and Innovation (SAFEWATER; EPSRC Grant Reference
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2019|