Long-term treatment with acylated analogues of apelin-13 amide ameliorates diabetes and improves lipid profile of high-fat fed mice

Finbarr O'Harte, Parthsarathy V, Christopher Hogg, PR Flatt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that modified apelin analogues exhibited enzyme resistance in plasma and improved circulating half-life compared to apelin-13. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of chronic administration of stable long acting fatty acid modified apelin analogues, namely, (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, in high-fat fed obese-diabetic mice. Male NIH Swiss mice (groups n = 8) were maintained either on a high-fat diet (45% fat) from 8 to 28 weeks old, or control mice were fed a normal diet (10% fat). When diet induced obesity-diabetes was established after high-fat feeding, mice were injected i.p. once daily with apelin analogues, liraglutide (25 nmol/kg) or saline (controls). Administration of (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide for 28 days significantly reduced food intake and decreased body weight. Non-fasting glucose was reduced (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and plasma insulin concentrations increased (p<0.01 to p<0.001). This was accompanied by enhanced insulin responses (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and significant reductions in glucose excursion after oral (p<0.01) or i.p. (p<0.01) glucose challenges and feeding. Apelin analogues also significantly improved HbA1c (p<0.01), enhanced insulin sensitivity (p<0.01), reduced triglycerides (p<0.001), increased HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) and decreased LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01), compared to high-fat fed saline treated control mice. Cholesterol levels were decreased (p<0.01) by pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and both apelin treated groups showed improved bone mineral content, reduced fat deposits and increased plasma GLP-1. Daily treatment with liraglutide mirrored many of these changes (not on bone or adipose tissue), but unlike apelin analogues increased plasma amylase. Consumption of O2, production of CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were improved by apelin analogues. These results indicate that long-term treatment with acylated analogues (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and particularly pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide resulted in similar or enhanced therapeutic responses to liraglutide in high-fat fed mice. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting development in the treatment of obesity-diabetes.
LanguageEnglish
Article numbere0202350
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume13
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Aug 2018

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amides
high density lipoprotein cholesterol
diabetes
mice
lipids
glucose
obesity
insulin
bones
fatty acids
glucagon-like peptide 1
glycemic effect
glycohemoglobin
high fat diet
low density lipoprotein cholesterol
amylases
insulin resistance
diet
energy expenditure
adipose tissue

Keywords

  • Apelin-13 analogues
  • diabetes
  • high fat fed mice
  • lipid profile

Cite this

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title = "Long-term treatment with acylated analogues of apelin-13 amide ameliorates diabetes and improves lipid profile of high-fat fed mice",
abstract = "Previous studies have shown that modified apelin analogues exhibited enzyme resistance in plasma and improved circulating half-life compared to apelin-13. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of chronic administration of stable long acting fatty acid modified apelin analogues, namely, (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, in high-fat fed obese-diabetic mice. Male NIH Swiss mice (groups n = 8) were maintained either on a high-fat diet (45{\%} fat) from 8 to 28 weeks old, or control mice were fed a normal diet (10{\%} fat). When diet induced obesity-diabetes was established after high-fat feeding, mice were injected i.p. once daily with apelin analogues, liraglutide (25 nmol/kg) or saline (controls). Administration of (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide for 28 days significantly reduced food intake and decreased body weight. Non-fasting glucose was reduced (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and plasma insulin concentrations increased (p<0.01 to p<0.001). This was accompanied by enhanced insulin responses (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and significant reductions in glucose excursion after oral (p<0.01) or i.p. (p<0.01) glucose challenges and feeding. Apelin analogues also significantly improved HbA1c (p<0.01), enhanced insulin sensitivity (p<0.01), reduced triglycerides (p<0.001), increased HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) and decreased LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01), compared to high-fat fed saline treated control mice. Cholesterol levels were decreased (p<0.01) by pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and both apelin treated groups showed improved bone mineral content, reduced fat deposits and increased plasma GLP-1. Daily treatment with liraglutide mirrored many of these changes (not on bone or adipose tissue), but unlike apelin analogues increased plasma amylase. Consumption of O2, production of CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were improved by apelin analogues. These results indicate that long-term treatment with acylated analogues (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and particularly pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide resulted in similar or enhanced therapeutic responses to liraglutide in high-fat fed mice. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting development in the treatment of obesity-diabetes.",
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Long-term treatment with acylated analogues of apelin-13 amide ameliorates diabetes and improves lipid profile of high-fat fed mice. / O'Harte, Finbarr; V, Parthsarathy; Hogg, Christopher; Flatt, PR.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 8, e0202350, 29.08.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term treatment with acylated analogues of apelin-13 amide ameliorates diabetes and improves lipid profile of high-fat fed mice

AU - O'Harte, Finbarr

AU - V, Parthsarathy

AU - Hogg, Christopher

AU - Flatt, PR

PY - 2018/8/29

Y1 - 2018/8/29

N2 - Previous studies have shown that modified apelin analogues exhibited enzyme resistance in plasma and improved circulating half-life compared to apelin-13. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of chronic administration of stable long acting fatty acid modified apelin analogues, namely, (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, in high-fat fed obese-diabetic mice. Male NIH Swiss mice (groups n = 8) were maintained either on a high-fat diet (45% fat) from 8 to 28 weeks old, or control mice were fed a normal diet (10% fat). When diet induced obesity-diabetes was established after high-fat feeding, mice were injected i.p. once daily with apelin analogues, liraglutide (25 nmol/kg) or saline (controls). Administration of (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide for 28 days significantly reduced food intake and decreased body weight. Non-fasting glucose was reduced (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and plasma insulin concentrations increased (p<0.01 to p<0.001). This was accompanied by enhanced insulin responses (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and significant reductions in glucose excursion after oral (p<0.01) or i.p. (p<0.01) glucose challenges and feeding. Apelin analogues also significantly improved HbA1c (p<0.01), enhanced insulin sensitivity (p<0.01), reduced triglycerides (p<0.001), increased HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) and decreased LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01), compared to high-fat fed saline treated control mice. Cholesterol levels were decreased (p<0.01) by pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and both apelin treated groups showed improved bone mineral content, reduced fat deposits and increased plasma GLP-1. Daily treatment with liraglutide mirrored many of these changes (not on bone or adipose tissue), but unlike apelin analogues increased plasma amylase. Consumption of O2, production of CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were improved by apelin analogues. These results indicate that long-term treatment with acylated analogues (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and particularly pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide resulted in similar or enhanced therapeutic responses to liraglutide in high-fat fed mice. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting development in the treatment of obesity-diabetes.

AB - Previous studies have shown that modified apelin analogues exhibited enzyme resistance in plasma and improved circulating half-life compared to apelin-13. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of chronic administration of stable long acting fatty acid modified apelin analogues, namely, (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide, in high-fat fed obese-diabetic mice. Male NIH Swiss mice (groups n = 8) were maintained either on a high-fat diet (45% fat) from 8 to 28 weeks old, or control mice were fed a normal diet (10% fat). When diet induced obesity-diabetes was established after high-fat feeding, mice were injected i.p. once daily with apelin analogues, liraglutide (25 nmol/kg) or saline (controls). Administration of (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide for 28 days significantly reduced food intake and decreased body weight. Non-fasting glucose was reduced (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and plasma insulin concentrations increased (p<0.01 to p<0.001). This was accompanied by enhanced insulin responses (p<0.01 to p<0.001) and significant reductions in glucose excursion after oral (p<0.01) or i.p. (p<0.01) glucose challenges and feeding. Apelin analogues also significantly improved HbA1c (p<0.01), enhanced insulin sensitivity (p<0.01), reduced triglycerides (p<0.001), increased HDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) and decreased LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01), compared to high-fat fed saline treated control mice. Cholesterol levels were decreased (p<0.01) by pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and both apelin treated groups showed improved bone mineral content, reduced fat deposits and increased plasma GLP-1. Daily treatment with liraglutide mirrored many of these changes (not on bone or adipose tissue), but unlike apelin analogues increased plasma amylase. Consumption of O2, production of CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and energy expenditure were improved by apelin analogues. These results indicate that long-term treatment with acylated analogues (Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide and particularly pGlu(Lys8GluPAL)apelin-13 amide resulted in similar or enhanced therapeutic responses to liraglutide in high-fat fed mice. Fatty acid derived apelin analogues represent a new and exciting development in the treatment of obesity-diabetes.

KW - Apelin-13 analogues

KW - diabetes

KW - high fat fed mice

KW - lipid profile

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0202350

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0202350

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - PLoS ONE

T2 - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 8

M1 - e0202350

ER -