Device mobility is an issue that affects both Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and opportunistic networks. While the former employs conventional routing techniques with some element of mobility management, opportunistic networking protocols often use mobility as a means of delivering messages in intermittently connected networks. If nodes are able to determine the future locations of other nodes with reasonable accuracy then they could plan ahead and take into account and even benefit from such mobility. In an ad-hoc network, devices form a network amongst themselves and forward packets for each other without infrastructure. Ad-hoc networks could be deployed in a disaster scenario to enable communications between responders and base camp to provide telemedicine services. However, most ad-hoc routing protocols cannot meet the necessary standards for streaming multimedia because they do not attempt to manage Quality of Service (QoS). Node mobility adds an additional layer of complexity leading to potentially detrimental effects on QoS. Geographic routing protocols use physical locations to make routing decisions and are typically lightweight, distributed, and require only local network knowledge. They are thus less susceptible to the effects of mobility, but are not impervious. Location-prediction can be used to enhance geographic routing, and counter the negative effects of mobility, but this has received relatively little attention. Location prediction in combination with geographic routing has been explored in previous literature. Most of these location prediction schemes have made simplistic assumptions about mobility. However more advanced location prediction schemes using machine learning techniques have been used for wireless infrastructure networks. These approaches rely on the use of infrastructure and are therefore unsuitable for use in opportunistic networks or MANETs. To solve the problem of accurately predicting future location in non-infrastructure networks, we investigate the prediction of continuous numerical coordinates using artificial neural networks. Simulation using three different mobility models representing human mobility has shown an average prediction error of less than 1m in normal circumstances.
- mobile ad hoc networks
- geographical routing