Learning, development and support needs of community palliative care clinical nurse specialists.

Evelyn Whittaker, George Kernohan, Dorry McLaughlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The palliative care clinical nurse specialist (PC-CNS) is a core member of the specialist palliative care team. According to professional policy, the role has four specific components: clinical practice, education, research, and leadership and management. Little is known about how to support staff in this role. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore what learning, development, and support PC-CNSs in one hospice need to enable them to fulfil all components of their role. Design: Using a descriptive exploratory approach, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of community PC-CNSs from a hospice in Northern Ireland. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Findings: Seventeen interviews were analysed and three themes identified: influence of organisational culture, influence of the individual, and learning and development solutions. Conclusions: Participants reported that the PC-CNS role was stressful. They identified that the organisational culture and indeed individuals themselves influenced the learning and development support available to help them fulfil the four components of the role. Working relationships and stability within teams affected how supported individuals felt and had implications for managers in meeting the needs of staff while balancing the needs of the service.
LanguageEnglish
Pages425-433
JournalInternational Journal of Palliative Nursing
Volume20
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sep 2014

Fingerprint

Nurse Clinicians
Palliative Care
Organizational Culture
Hospices
Learning
Interviews
Professional Role
Northern Ireland
Nurse's Role
Education
Research

Keywords

  • Palliative care clinical nurse specialist
  • Learning and
  • development
  • Role
  • Hospice care

Cite this

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title = "Learning, development and support needs of community palliative care clinical nurse specialists.",
abstract = "Background: The palliative care clinical nurse specialist (PC-CNS) is a core member of the specialist palliative care team. According to professional policy, the role has four specific components: clinical practice, education, research, and leadership and management. Little is known about how to support staff in this role. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore what learning, development, and support PC-CNSs in one hospice need to enable them to fulfil all components of their role. Design: Using a descriptive exploratory approach, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of community PC-CNSs from a hospice in Northern Ireland. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Findings: Seventeen interviews were analysed and three themes identified: influence of organisational culture, influence of the individual, and learning and development solutions. Conclusions: Participants reported that the PC-CNS role was stressful. They identified that the organisational culture and indeed individuals themselves influenced the learning and development support available to help them fulfil the four components of the role. Working relationships and stability within teams affected how supported individuals felt and had implications for managers in meeting the needs of staff while balancing the needs of the service.",
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note = "Reference text: Arber A (2007) “Pain talk” in hospice and palliative care team meetings: an ethnography. Int J Nurs Stud 44(6): 916–26 Astin F, Jos{\'e} Closs S, Hughes N (2008) Macmillan nurses’ education and development needs: a documentary analysis. J Clin Nurs 17(14): 1949–51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02198.x Bamford O, Gibson F (2000) The clinical nurse specialist: perceptions of practising CNSs of their role and development needs. J Clin Nurs 9(2): 282–92 Booth K, Luker KA, Costello J, Dows K (2003) Macmillan cancer and palliative care specialists: their practice development support needs. Int J Palliat Nurs 9(2): 73–9 Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety (2010) Living Matters Dying Matters: A Palliative and End of Life Care Strategy for Adults in Northern Ireland. www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/8555_palliative_final.pdf (accessed 21 August 2014) Gambles M, Wilkinson SM, Dissanayake C (2003) What are you like? A personality profile of cancer and palliative care nurses in the United Kingdom. Cancer Nurs 26(2): 97–104 Gibson F, Bamford O (2001) Focus group interviews to examine the role and development of the clinical nurse specialist. J Nurs Manag 9(6): 331–42 Hawkins AC, Howard RA, Oyebode JR (2007) Stress and coping in hospice nursing staff. The impact of attachment styles. Psychooncology 16(6): 563–72 Husband J, Kennedy C (2006) Exploring the role of community palliative care nurse specialists as educators. Int J Palliat Nurs 12(6): 277–84 Lacey A (2006) The research process. In: Gerrish K, Lacey A, eds. The Research Process in Nursing. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford: 16–30 Maylor M (2004) Where will clinical nurse specialists be placed on Agenda for Change? Br J Nurs 13(15): S26–32 McCreaddie M (2001) The role of the clinical nurse specialist. Nurs Stand 16(10): 33–8 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2004) Improving Supportive and Palliative Care for Patients with Cancer. NICE, London Newbury J, de Leeuw W, Newton C (2008) What do community palliative care nurse specialists do? An activity analysis. Int J Palliat Nurs 14(6): 264–71 Newell R, Burnard P (2006) Research for Evidence-Based Practice. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford Newton J, Waters V (2001) Community palliative care clinical nurse specialists’ descriptions of stress in their work. Int J Palliat Nurs 7(11): 531–40 Northern Ireland Cancer Network (2011) Palliative and End of Life Care Competency Assessment Tool. NICAN, Belfast Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (2014) Health Areas. www.nisra.gov.uk/demography/default. asp136.htm (accessed 2 September 2014) Seymour J, Clark D, Hughes P et al (2002) Clinical nurse specialists in palliative care. Part 3. Issues for the Macmillan Nurse role. Palliat Med 16(5): 386–94 Skilbeck J, Seymour J (2002) Meeting complex needs: an analysis of Macmillan nurses’ work with patients. Int J Palliat Nurs 8(12): 574–82 Skilbeck J, Corner J, Bath P et al (2002) Clinical nurse specialists in palliative care. Part 1. A description of the MacMillan Nurse caseload. Palliat Med 16(4): 285–96 Streubert HJ, Carpenter DR (1999) Qualitative Research in Nursing: Advancing the Humanistic Imperative. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia Tod A (2006) Interviewing. In: Gerrish K, Lacey A, eds. The Research Process in Nursing. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford: 245–357 Todres L, Holloway I (2006) Phenomenological research. In: Gerrish K, Lacey A, eds. The Research Process in Nursing. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford: 224–38 Trevatt P, Leary A (2010) A census of the advanced and specialist cancer nursing workforce in England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Eur J Oncol Nurs 14(1): 68–73. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2009.08.005 Tunnah K, Jones A, Johnstone R (2012) Stress in hospice at home nurses: a qualitative study of their experiences of their work and wellbeing. Int J Palliat Nurs 18(6): 283–9 United Kingdom Central Council (2001) Standards for specialist education and practice. www.nmc-uk.org/Documents/Standards/nmcStandardsForSpecialistEducationandPractice.pdf (accessed 1 September 2014) Vachon ML (1995) Staff stress in hospice/palliative care: a review. Palliat Med 9(2): 91–122 Vachon MLS (2000) Burnout and symptoms of stress in staff working in palliative care. In: Chochinov HM, Breitbart W (eds) Handbook of Psychiatry in Palliative Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 303–19 Vidall C, Barlow H, Crowe M, Harrison I, Young A (2011) Clinical nurse specialists: essential resource for an effective NHS. Br J Nurs 20(17): S23–7",
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Learning, development and support needs of community palliative care clinical nurse specialists. / Whittaker, Evelyn; Kernohan, George; McLaughlin, Dorry.

In: International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Vol. 20, No. 9, 05.09.2014, p. 425-433.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Kernohan, George

AU - McLaughlin, Dorry

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AB - Background: The palliative care clinical nurse specialist (PC-CNS) is a core member of the specialist palliative care team. According to professional policy, the role has four specific components: clinical practice, education, research, and leadership and management. Little is known about how to support staff in this role. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore what learning, development, and support PC-CNSs in one hospice need to enable them to fulfil all components of their role. Design: Using a descriptive exploratory approach, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of community PC-CNSs from a hospice in Northern Ireland. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Findings: Seventeen interviews were analysed and three themes identified: influence of organisational culture, influence of the individual, and learning and development solutions. Conclusions: Participants reported that the PC-CNS role was stressful. They identified that the organisational culture and indeed individuals themselves influenced the learning and development support available to help them fulfil the four components of the role. Working relationships and stability within teams affected how supported individuals felt and had implications for managers in meeting the needs of staff while balancing the needs of the service.

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