Lead selection: old and new methods for locating the most electrocardiogram information

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Abstract

The present paper summarises the work presented in several key studies over the past three decades in the area of limited lead selection. Specifically, we summarise the pioneering research of those investigators searching for the most ‘signal’ information and those searching for the most ‘diagnostic’ information. Initially, we present the work conducted by Barr et al. and later, Lux et al. who investigated body surface potential maps to locate those recording sites containing the most ‘signal’ information which, subsequently facilitated the estimation of the electrical potentials at all other areas of the thoracic surface. Subsequently, the discussion focuses on the early work conducted by Kornreich et al. which utilised statistical methods to identify those recording sites containing optimal measurement features to improve upon the identification of different disease types. In addition to the aforementioned work, an overview of more recent complementary work is summarised.
LanguageEnglish
Pages257-263
JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
Volume41
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 May 2008

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@article{597e3b736a2549b58179ef2b2762b287,
title = "Lead selection: old and new methods for locating the most electrocardiogram information",
abstract = "The present paper summarises the work presented in several key studies over the past three decades in the area of limited lead selection. Specifically, we summarise the pioneering research of those investigators searching for the most ‘signal’ information and those searching for the most ‘diagnostic’ information. Initially, we present the work conducted by Barr et al. and later, Lux et al. who investigated body surface potential maps to locate those recording sites containing the most ‘signal’ information which, subsequently facilitated the estimation of the electrical potentials at all other areas of the thoracic surface. Subsequently, the discussion focuses on the early work conducted by Kornreich et al. which utilised statistical methods to identify those recording sites containing optimal measurement features to improve upon the identification of different disease types. In addition to the aforementioned work, an overview of more recent complementary work is summarised.",
author = "Mark Donnelly and Dewar Finlay and Chris Nugent and Norman Black",
note = "Reference text: 1. N. C. Flowers, and L. G. Horan, “Body surface mapping including relationships with endocardial and epicardial mapping,” Annals of the New York Academy of Science, vol. 601, pp 148-179, 1990. 2. R. L. Lux, “Electrocardiographic mapping, noninvasive electrophysiological cardiac imaging,” Circulation, vol. 87, no. 3, pp 1040-1042, 1993. 3. R. Hoekema, G. J. H. Uijen, and A. van Oosterom, “On selecting a body surface mapping procedure,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 93-101, 1999. 4. F. Kornreich, “Clinical utility of body surface potential mapping,” Cardiac Electrophysiology Review, vol. 3, pp 304-307, 1997. 5. L. I. Horwitz, “Current clinical utility of body surface mapping,” Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 265-274, 1995. 6. D. M. Mirvis, “Current status of body surface electrocardiographic mapping,” Circulation, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 684-688, 1987. 7. Y. Watanabe, “Status of body surface mapping in Japan,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 28, suppl., pp. 110-120, 1995. 8. R. C. Barr, M. S. Spach, and S. Herman-Giddens, “Selection of the number and position of measuring locations for electrocardiography,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 18, pp. 125-138, 1971. 9. R. L. Lux, C. R. Smith, R. F. Wyatt, and J. A. Abildskov, “Limited lead selection for the estimation of body surface potential maps in electrocardiography,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 270-276, 1978. 10. R. L. Lux, M. J. Burgess, R. F. Wyatt, A. K. Evans, G. M. Vincent, and J. A. Abildskov, “Clinically practical lead systems for improved electrocardiography: comparison with precordial grids and conventional lead systems,” Circulation, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 356-363, 1979. 11. R. L. Lux, “Electrocardiographic potential correlations: Rationale and basis for lead selection and ECG estimation,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 35 suppl., pp. 1-5, 2002. 12. D. D. Finlay, C. D. Nugent, M. P. Donnelly, R. L. Lux, P. J. McCullagh, and N. D. Black, {"}Selection of Optimal Recording Sites for Limited Lead Body Surface Potential Mapping: A Sequential Selection Based Approach,{"} BMC Journal of Medical Informatics and Decision Making, Vol. 6 (9), online, 2006. 13. D. D. Finlay, C. D. Nugent, M. P. Donnelly, P. J. McCullagh, and N. D. Black, {"}Optimal Electrocardiographic Lead Systems: Practical Scenarios in Smart Clothing and Wearable Health Systems,{"} IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, in press, 2008. 14. F. Kornreich, P. M. Rautaharju, J. Warren, T. J. Montague, and B. M. Horacek, “Identification of best electrocardiographic leads for diagnosing myocardial infarction by statistical analysis of body surface potential maps,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 56, pp. 852-856, 1985. 15. F. Kornreich, “The missing information in the orthogonal electrocardiogram (Frank leads). I. Where and how can this missing waveform information be retrieved?,” Circulation, vol 48, pp. 984-995, 1973. 16. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, P. M. Rautaharju, P. Block, J. W. Warren, and M. B. Horacek, {"}Identification of Best Electrocardiographic Leads for Diagnosing Anterior and Inferior Myocardial Infarction by Statistical Analysis of Body Surface Potential Maps,” Am Journal of Cardiology, vol. 58, pp. 863-871, 1986. 17. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, P. Smets, P. M. Rautaharju, and M. Kavadias, “Multigroup Diagnostic Classification Using Body Surface Potential Maps,” Proceedings of the 16th Conference IEEE Computers in Cardiology, 19 – 22 Sept, pp. 181 – 184, 1989. 18. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, P. M. Rautaharju, M. Kavadias, M. B. Horacek, “Identfication of Best Electrocardiographic Leads for Diagnosing Left Ventricular Hypertropy by Statistical Analysis of Body Surface Potential Maps,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 62 (17), pp. 1285-1291, 1988. 19. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, P. M. Rautaharju, and M. Kavadias, M. Horacek, and B. Taccardi, “Multigroup Diagnosis of Surface Potential Maps,” Journal of Electrocardiolgy, vol. 2, Suppl., pp. 169 – 178, 1989. 20. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, M. Kavadias, J. Segers, P. M. Rautaharju, M. B. Horacek, B. Taccardi, {"}Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Characteristic Body Surface Potential Map Features in Anterior and Inferior Myocardial Infarction{"}, American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 60, pp. 1230 -1238, 1987. 21. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, and P. M. Rautaharju, {"}Identification of first acute Q wave and non-Q wave myocardial infarction by multivariate analysis of body surface potential maps,{"} Circulation, vol. 84, pp. 2442-2453, 1991. 22. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, and P. M. Rautaharju, {"}Body Surface Potential Mapping of ST Segment Changes in Acute Myocardial Infarction Implications for ECG Enrollment Criteria for Throbolytic Therapy,{"} Circulation, vol. 87, pp. 773-782, 1993. 23. M. P. Donnelly, C. D. Nugent, D. D. Finlay, N. D. Black, {"}Optimal Electrode Placements for the Identification of Old MI and LVH{"}, in proceedings of the 33rd International Conference of IEEE Computers in Cardiology, Valencia, Spain, Vol. 33, pp. 437-440, 2007. 24. R. Kohavi and G. John, “Wrappers for feature subset selection,” Artificial Intelligence Journal, vol. 97 (1) pp. 273-324, 1996. 25. M. P. Donnelly, C. D. Nugent, D. D. Finlay, and N. D. Black, {"}Selecting Diagnostically Optimal Recording Sites in Electrocardiography to Enhance Home Based Recovery Monitoring with Smart Clothes,{"} International Journal of Assistive Robotics and Mechatronics, vol. 8 (2), pp. 44-52, 2007. 26. M. P. Donnelly, C. D. Nugent, D. D. Finaly, and N. D. Black, {"}Intelligent Analysis of Body Surface Potential Maps to Identify Optimal Recording Sites for Diagnosing MI and LVH,{"} International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Applications, R. K. Begg and M. Palaniswami Eds, In Press, 2008. 27. B. J. Drew, D. M. Schindler, J. K. Zegre, K. E. Fleischmann and R. L. Lux, “Estimated Body Surface Potential Maps in Emergency Department Patients with Unrecognized Transient Myocardial Ischemia,” Journal of Electrocardiology, Vol. 40 (6), Suppl, pp. 15-20, 2007. 28. R. L. Lux, R. S. MacLeod, M. Fuller, L. S. Green, and F. Kornreich, “Estimating ECG distributions from small numbers of leads,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol.28 (Suppl), pp. 92-98, 1995. 29. F. Kornreich, R. L. Lux, and R. S. MacLeod, “Map representation and diagnostic performance of the standard 12-lead ECG,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 28 (Suppl), pp. 121-123, 1995.",
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}

Lead selection: old and new methods for locating the most electrocardiogram information. / Donnelly, Mark; Finlay, Dewar; Nugent, Chris; Black, Norman.

In: Journal of Electrocardiology, Vol. 41, No. 3, 02.05.2008, p. 257-263.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lead selection: old and new methods for locating the most electrocardiogram information

AU - Donnelly, Mark

AU - Finlay, Dewar

AU - Nugent, Chris

AU - Black, Norman

N1 - Reference text: 1. N. C. Flowers, and L. G. Horan, “Body surface mapping including relationships with endocardial and epicardial mapping,” Annals of the New York Academy of Science, vol. 601, pp 148-179, 1990. 2. R. L. Lux, “Electrocardiographic mapping, noninvasive electrophysiological cardiac imaging,” Circulation, vol. 87, no. 3, pp 1040-1042, 1993. 3. R. Hoekema, G. J. H. Uijen, and A. van Oosterom, “On selecting a body surface mapping procedure,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 93-101, 1999. 4. F. Kornreich, “Clinical utility of body surface potential mapping,” Cardiac Electrophysiology Review, vol. 3, pp 304-307, 1997. 5. L. I. Horwitz, “Current clinical utility of body surface mapping,” Journal of Invasive Cardiology, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 265-274, 1995. 6. D. M. Mirvis, “Current status of body surface electrocardiographic mapping,” Circulation, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 684-688, 1987. 7. Y. Watanabe, “Status of body surface mapping in Japan,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 28, suppl., pp. 110-120, 1995. 8. R. C. Barr, M. S. Spach, and S. Herman-Giddens, “Selection of the number and position of measuring locations for electrocardiography,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 18, pp. 125-138, 1971. 9. R. L. Lux, C. R. Smith, R. F. Wyatt, and J. A. Abildskov, “Limited lead selection for the estimation of body surface potential maps in electrocardiography,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 270-276, 1978. 10. R. L. Lux, M. J. Burgess, R. F. Wyatt, A. K. Evans, G. M. Vincent, and J. A. Abildskov, “Clinically practical lead systems for improved electrocardiography: comparison with precordial grids and conventional lead systems,” Circulation, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 356-363, 1979. 11. R. L. Lux, “Electrocardiographic potential correlations: Rationale and basis for lead selection and ECG estimation,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 35 suppl., pp. 1-5, 2002. 12. D. D. Finlay, C. D. Nugent, M. P. Donnelly, R. L. Lux, P. J. McCullagh, and N. D. Black, "Selection of Optimal Recording Sites for Limited Lead Body Surface Potential Mapping: A Sequential Selection Based Approach," BMC Journal of Medical Informatics and Decision Making, Vol. 6 (9), online, 2006. 13. D. D. Finlay, C. D. Nugent, M. P. Donnelly, P. J. McCullagh, and N. D. Black, "Optimal Electrocardiographic Lead Systems: Practical Scenarios in Smart Clothing and Wearable Health Systems," IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine, in press, 2008. 14. F. Kornreich, P. M. Rautaharju, J. Warren, T. J. Montague, and B. M. Horacek, “Identification of best electrocardiographic leads for diagnosing myocardial infarction by statistical analysis of body surface potential maps,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 56, pp. 852-856, 1985. 15. F. Kornreich, “The missing information in the orthogonal electrocardiogram (Frank leads). I. Where and how can this missing waveform information be retrieved?,” Circulation, vol 48, pp. 984-995, 1973. 16. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, P. M. Rautaharju, P. Block, J. W. Warren, and M. B. Horacek, "Identification of Best Electrocardiographic Leads for Diagnosing Anterior and Inferior Myocardial Infarction by Statistical Analysis of Body Surface Potential Maps,” Am Journal of Cardiology, vol. 58, pp. 863-871, 1986. 17. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, P. Smets, P. M. Rautaharju, and M. Kavadias, “Multigroup Diagnostic Classification Using Body Surface Potential Maps,” Proceedings of the 16th Conference IEEE Computers in Cardiology, 19 – 22 Sept, pp. 181 – 184, 1989. 18. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, P. M. Rautaharju, M. Kavadias, M. B. Horacek, “Identfication of Best Electrocardiographic Leads for Diagnosing Left Ventricular Hypertropy by Statistical Analysis of Body Surface Potential Maps,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 62 (17), pp. 1285-1291, 1988. 19. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, P. M. Rautaharju, and M. Kavadias, M. Horacek, and B. Taccardi, “Multigroup Diagnosis of Surface Potential Maps,” Journal of Electrocardiolgy, vol. 2, Suppl., pp. 169 – 178, 1989. 20. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, M. Kavadias, J. Segers, P. M. Rautaharju, M. B. Horacek, B. Taccardi, "Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Characteristic Body Surface Potential Map Features in Anterior and Inferior Myocardial Infarction", American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 60, pp. 1230 -1238, 1987. 21. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, and P. M. Rautaharju, "Identification of first acute Q wave and non-Q wave myocardial infarction by multivariate analysis of body surface potential maps," Circulation, vol. 84, pp. 2442-2453, 1991. 22. F. Kornreich, T. J. Montague, and P. M. Rautaharju, "Body Surface Potential Mapping of ST Segment Changes in Acute Myocardial Infarction Implications for ECG Enrollment Criteria for Throbolytic Therapy," Circulation, vol. 87, pp. 773-782, 1993. 23. M. P. Donnelly, C. D. Nugent, D. D. Finlay, N. D. Black, "Optimal Electrode Placements for the Identification of Old MI and LVH", in proceedings of the 33rd International Conference of IEEE Computers in Cardiology, Valencia, Spain, Vol. 33, pp. 437-440, 2007. 24. R. Kohavi and G. John, “Wrappers for feature subset selection,” Artificial Intelligence Journal, vol. 97 (1) pp. 273-324, 1996. 25. M. P. Donnelly, C. D. Nugent, D. D. Finlay, and N. D. Black, "Selecting Diagnostically Optimal Recording Sites in Electrocardiography to Enhance Home Based Recovery Monitoring with Smart Clothes," International Journal of Assistive Robotics and Mechatronics, vol. 8 (2), pp. 44-52, 2007. 26. M. P. Donnelly, C. D. Nugent, D. D. Finaly, and N. D. Black, "Intelligent Analysis of Body Surface Potential Maps to Identify Optimal Recording Sites for Diagnosing MI and LVH," International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Applications, R. K. Begg and M. Palaniswami Eds, In Press, 2008. 27. B. J. Drew, D. M. Schindler, J. K. Zegre, K. E. Fleischmann and R. L. Lux, “Estimated Body Surface Potential Maps in Emergency Department Patients with Unrecognized Transient Myocardial Ischemia,” Journal of Electrocardiology, Vol. 40 (6), Suppl, pp. 15-20, 2007. 28. R. L. Lux, R. S. MacLeod, M. Fuller, L. S. Green, and F. Kornreich, “Estimating ECG distributions from small numbers of leads,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol.28 (Suppl), pp. 92-98, 1995. 29. F. Kornreich, R. L. Lux, and R. S. MacLeod, “Map representation and diagnostic performance of the standard 12-lead ECG,” Journal of Electrocardiology, vol. 28 (Suppl), pp. 121-123, 1995.

PY - 2008/5/2

Y1 - 2008/5/2

N2 - The present paper summarises the work presented in several key studies over the past three decades in the area of limited lead selection. Specifically, we summarise the pioneering research of those investigators searching for the most ‘signal’ information and those searching for the most ‘diagnostic’ information. Initially, we present the work conducted by Barr et al. and later, Lux et al. who investigated body surface potential maps to locate those recording sites containing the most ‘signal’ information which, subsequently facilitated the estimation of the electrical potentials at all other areas of the thoracic surface. Subsequently, the discussion focuses on the early work conducted by Kornreich et al. which utilised statistical methods to identify those recording sites containing optimal measurement features to improve upon the identification of different disease types. In addition to the aforementioned work, an overview of more recent complementary work is summarised.

AB - The present paper summarises the work presented in several key studies over the past three decades in the area of limited lead selection. Specifically, we summarise the pioneering research of those investigators searching for the most ‘signal’ information and those searching for the most ‘diagnostic’ information. Initially, we present the work conducted by Barr et al. and later, Lux et al. who investigated body surface potential maps to locate those recording sites containing the most ‘signal’ information which, subsequently facilitated the estimation of the electrical potentials at all other areas of the thoracic surface. Subsequently, the discussion focuses on the early work conducted by Kornreich et al. which utilised statistical methods to identify those recording sites containing optimal measurement features to improve upon the identification of different disease types. In addition to the aforementioned work, an overview of more recent complementary work is summarised.

U2 - 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2008.02.004

DO - 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2008.02.004

M3 - Article

VL - 41

SP - 257

EP - 263

JO - Journal of Electrocardiology

T2 - Journal of Electrocardiology

JF - Journal of Electrocardiology

SN - 0022-0736

IS - 3

ER -