Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market

Vani Borooah, Donal Dineen, Nicola Lynch

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    9 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This paper, using data from the 2006 Irish Census, provides evidence of the structural advantage of Irish speaking, relative to non-speaking, workers in Ireland’s labour market with advantage and disadvantage being defined in terms of occupational outcomes. To the best of our knowledge there has been no systematic investigation of any advantage enjoyed by Irish speakers in Ireland and allegations of the comfortable middle class ambience of the Gaelscoileanna have remained at the level of anecdote. Since linguistic elitism is a feature of many societies and since Irish enjoys the constitutional status of the national and first official language of Ireland, such an investigation was, arguably, overdue. This is then compared to the structural advantage of Irish speaking workers in Northern Ireland and of Welsh speaking workers in Wales. Our conclusion is that after controlling for as many relevant factors as the data permitted, a considerable part of the difference between Irish speakers and non-speakers in Ireland, in their proportionate presence in the upper reaches of occupational class, was due to structural advantage. The major contribution of this paper is to lift the debate about the economic position Irish speakers in Ireland above the level of hearsay: dúirt bean liom go ndúirt bean léi.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages435-460
    JournalEconomic and Social Review
    Volume40
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009

    Fingerprint

    occupational status
    Ireland
    labor market
    linguistics
    speaking
    language
    worker
    occupational class
    official language
    middle class
    census
    society
    evidence
    economics

    Cite this

    Borooah, V., Dineen, D., & Lynch, N. (2009). Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market. 40(4), 435-460.
    Borooah, Vani ; Dineen, Donal ; Lynch, Nicola. / Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market. 2009 ; Vol. 40, No. 4. pp. 435-460.
    @article{3339f10561cb4cffa295ea090f106d01,
    title = "Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market",
    abstract = "This paper, using data from the 2006 Irish Census, provides evidence of the structural advantage of Irish speaking, relative to non-speaking, workers in Ireland’s labour market with advantage and disadvantage being defined in terms of occupational outcomes. To the best of our knowledge there has been no systematic investigation of any advantage enjoyed by Irish speakers in Ireland and allegations of the comfortable middle class ambience of the Gaelscoileanna have remained at the level of anecdote. Since linguistic elitism is a feature of many societies and since Irish enjoys the constitutional status of the national and first official language of Ireland, such an investigation was, arguably, overdue. This is then compared to the structural advantage of Irish speaking workers in Northern Ireland and of Welsh speaking workers in Wales. Our conclusion is that after controlling for as many relevant factors as the data permitted, a considerable part of the difference between Irish speakers and non-speakers in Ireland, in their proportionate presence in the upper reaches of occupational class, was due to structural advantage. The major contribution of this paper is to lift the debate about the economic position Irish speakers in Ireland above the level of hearsay: d{\'u}irt bean liom go nd{\'u}irt bean l{\'e}i.",
    author = "Vani Borooah and Donal Dineen and Nicola Lynch",
    note = "Reference text: Arrow, K.J. (1998), “What Has Economics to Say About Racial Discrimination”, Journal of Economic Perspectives 12, pp. 91-100. Blackaby, D., Drinkwater, S., Leslie, D. and Murphy, P. (1997) ‘A Picture of Male and Female Unemployment Among Britain's Ethnic Minorities’, Scottish Journal of Political Economy 44, 182–97. Borooah, V.K. (1999), “Is There a Penalty to Being a Catholic in Northern Ireland? An Econometric Analysis of the Relationship Between Religious Belief and Occupational Success”, European Journal of Political Economy 15, pp. 163-92. Borooah, V.K. (2001), ‘How Do Employees of Ethnic Origin Fare on the Occupational Ladder in Britain?’ The Scottish Journal of Political Economy 48, 1–26. Borooah, V.K. and Iyer, S. (2005, {"}The Decomposition of Inter-Group Differences in a Logit Model: Extending the Oaxaca-Blinder Approach with an Application to School Enrolment in India”, Journal of Economic and Social Measurement , vol. 30, pp.279-93. Borooah, V.K. and Mangan, J.E. (2007), “What Underpins Occupational Success? Race, Access, and Reward in Professional and Managerial Jobs in Australia,” Labour 21, pp. 837-869. Davern M. and D.S. Hachen (2006) “The Role of Information and Influence in Social Networks, Examining the Association Between Social Network Structure and Job Mobility” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65 (2), 269-293. Deaux K., and D. Martin (2003) “Interpersonal Networks and Social Categories: Specifying Levels of Context in Identity Processes” Social Psychology Quarterly 66 (2), Special Issue: Social Identity: Sociological and Social Psychological Perspectives (Jun., 2003), 101-117. Dubini P., & H. Aldrich (1991) “Personal and extended networks are central to the entrepreneurial process” Journal of Business Venturing 6(5), 305-313. Freel M.S. (2000) “External linkages and product innovation in small manufacturing firms” Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 12, 26-266 Granovetter M. (1973) “The strength of weak ties” American Journal of Sociology 78, 1360-1380. Granovetter M. (1974) Getting a job, Cambidge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Higgs, R. (1977), Competition and Coercion: Blacks in the American Economy, 1865-1914, New York: Columbia University Press. Larson A. (1991) “Partner Networks: Leveraging eternal ties to improve entrepreneurial performance” Journal of Business Venturing 6(3), 173-88. Lewer J.J., and H. Van den Berg (2007) “Religion and International Trade: Does the sharing of a religious culture facilitate the formation of trade networks?” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 66 (4), 765-794. Madill J.J., Haines G.H., A.L. Riding (2004) “Networks and linkages among firms and organisation in the Ottawa-region” Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 16: 351-368. Nielsen, H.S. (1998), “Discrimination and Detailed Decomposition in a Logit Model”, Economics Letters 61, pp. 115-20. N{\'i} R{\'i}ord{\'a}in M., and J. O’Donoghue (2008), “The relationship between performance on mathematical word problems and language proficiency for students learning through the medium of Irish”, Educational Studies in Mathematics: http://www.springerlink.com/content/158547k16j81r163/fulltext.pdf. Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review 14, 693-709. Premartne S.P. (2001) “Networks, Resources, and Small Business Growth: The experience in Sri Lanka” Journal of Small Business Management, 39 (4), 363-371 Schmidt, P. and Strauss, R.P. (1975), ‘The Prediction of Occupation Using Multiple Logit Models’, International Economic Review 16, 471–86. Sen, A.K. (1993), {"}Capability and Well-Being{"}, in M. Nussbaum and A.K. Sen (ed), The Quality of Life, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Whately, H. and Wright, G (1994), “Race, Human Capital, and Labour Markets in American History”, in G, Grantham and M. MacKinnon (ed), Labour Market Evolution, New York: Routledge. Zaheer A., and N. Venkatraman (1995) “Relational governance as an inter-organisational strategy: An empirical test of the role of trust in economic exchanges” Strategic Management Journal 16, 373-392.",
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    Borooah, V, Dineen, D & Lynch, N 2009, 'Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market', vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 435-460.

    Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market. / Borooah, Vani; Dineen, Donal; Lynch, Nicola.

    Vol. 40, No. 4, 12.2009, p. 435-460.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market

    AU - Borooah, Vani

    AU - Dineen, Donal

    AU - Lynch, Nicola

    N1 - Reference text: Arrow, K.J. (1998), “What Has Economics to Say About Racial Discrimination”, Journal of Economic Perspectives 12, pp. 91-100. Blackaby, D., Drinkwater, S., Leslie, D. and Murphy, P. (1997) ‘A Picture of Male and Female Unemployment Among Britain's Ethnic Minorities’, Scottish Journal of Political Economy 44, 182–97. Borooah, V.K. (1999), “Is There a Penalty to Being a Catholic in Northern Ireland? An Econometric Analysis of the Relationship Between Religious Belief and Occupational Success”, European Journal of Political Economy 15, pp. 163-92. Borooah, V.K. (2001), ‘How Do Employees of Ethnic Origin Fare on the Occupational Ladder in Britain?’ The Scottish Journal of Political Economy 48, 1–26. Borooah, V.K. and Iyer, S. (2005, "The Decomposition of Inter-Group Differences in a Logit Model: Extending the Oaxaca-Blinder Approach with an Application to School Enrolment in India”, Journal of Economic and Social Measurement , vol. 30, pp.279-93. Borooah, V.K. and Mangan, J.E. (2007), “What Underpins Occupational Success? Race, Access, and Reward in Professional and Managerial Jobs in Australia,” Labour 21, pp. 837-869. Davern M. and D.S. Hachen (2006) “The Role of Information and Influence in Social Networks, Examining the Association Between Social Network Structure and Job Mobility” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65 (2), 269-293. Deaux K., and D. Martin (2003) “Interpersonal Networks and Social Categories: Specifying Levels of Context in Identity Processes” Social Psychology Quarterly 66 (2), Special Issue: Social Identity: Sociological and Social Psychological Perspectives (Jun., 2003), 101-117. Dubini P., & H. Aldrich (1991) “Personal and extended networks are central to the entrepreneurial process” Journal of Business Venturing 6(5), 305-313. Freel M.S. (2000) “External linkages and product innovation in small manufacturing firms” Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 12, 26-266 Granovetter M. (1973) “The strength of weak ties” American Journal of Sociology 78, 1360-1380. Granovetter M. (1974) Getting a job, Cambidge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Higgs, R. (1977), Competition and Coercion: Blacks in the American Economy, 1865-1914, New York: Columbia University Press. Larson A. (1991) “Partner Networks: Leveraging eternal ties to improve entrepreneurial performance” Journal of Business Venturing 6(3), 173-88. Lewer J.J., and H. Van den Berg (2007) “Religion and International Trade: Does the sharing of a religious culture facilitate the formation of trade networks?” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 66 (4), 765-794. Madill J.J., Haines G.H., A.L. Riding (2004) “Networks and linkages among firms and organisation in the Ottawa-region” Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 16: 351-368. Nielsen, H.S. (1998), “Discrimination and Detailed Decomposition in a Logit Model”, Economics Letters 61, pp. 115-20. Ní Ríordáin M., and J. O’Donoghue (2008), “The relationship between performance on mathematical word problems and language proficiency for students learning through the medium of Irish”, Educational Studies in Mathematics: http://www.springerlink.com/content/158547k16j81r163/fulltext.pdf. Oaxaca, R. (1973), “Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets”, International Economic Review 14, 693-709. Premartne S.P. (2001) “Networks, Resources, and Small Business Growth: The experience in Sri Lanka” Journal of Small Business Management, 39 (4), 363-371 Schmidt, P. and Strauss, R.P. (1975), ‘The Prediction of Occupation Using Multiple Logit Models’, International Economic Review 16, 471–86. Sen, A.K. (1993), "Capability and Well-Being", in M. Nussbaum and A.K. Sen (ed), The Quality of Life, Oxford, Clarendon Press. Whately, H. and Wright, G (1994), “Race, Human Capital, and Labour Markets in American History”, in G, Grantham and M. MacKinnon (ed), Labour Market Evolution, New York: Routledge. Zaheer A., and N. Venkatraman (1995) “Relational governance as an inter-organisational strategy: An empirical test of the role of trust in economic exchanges” Strategic Management Journal 16, 373-392.

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    N2 - This paper, using data from the 2006 Irish Census, provides evidence of the structural advantage of Irish speaking, relative to non-speaking, workers in Ireland’s labour market with advantage and disadvantage being defined in terms of occupational outcomes. To the best of our knowledge there has been no systematic investigation of any advantage enjoyed by Irish speakers in Ireland and allegations of the comfortable middle class ambience of the Gaelscoileanna have remained at the level of anecdote. Since linguistic elitism is a feature of many societies and since Irish enjoys the constitutional status of the national and first official language of Ireland, such an investigation was, arguably, overdue. This is then compared to the structural advantage of Irish speaking workers in Northern Ireland and of Welsh speaking workers in Wales. Our conclusion is that after controlling for as many relevant factors as the data permitted, a considerable part of the difference between Irish speakers and non-speakers in Ireland, in their proportionate presence in the upper reaches of occupational class, was due to structural advantage. The major contribution of this paper is to lift the debate about the economic position Irish speakers in Ireland above the level of hearsay: dúirt bean liom go ndúirt bean léi.

    AB - This paper, using data from the 2006 Irish Census, provides evidence of the structural advantage of Irish speaking, relative to non-speaking, workers in Ireland’s labour market with advantage and disadvantage being defined in terms of occupational outcomes. To the best of our knowledge there has been no systematic investigation of any advantage enjoyed by Irish speakers in Ireland and allegations of the comfortable middle class ambience of the Gaelscoileanna have remained at the level of anecdote. Since linguistic elitism is a feature of many societies and since Irish enjoys the constitutional status of the national and first official language of Ireland, such an investigation was, arguably, overdue. This is then compared to the structural advantage of Irish speaking workers in Northern Ireland and of Welsh speaking workers in Wales. Our conclusion is that after controlling for as many relevant factors as the data permitted, a considerable part of the difference between Irish speakers and non-speakers in Ireland, in their proportionate presence in the upper reaches of occupational class, was due to structural advantage. The major contribution of this paper is to lift the debate about the economic position Irish speakers in Ireland above the level of hearsay: dúirt bean liom go ndúirt bean léi.

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    Borooah V, Dineen D, Lynch N. Language and Occupational Status: Linguistic Elitism in the Irish Labour Market. 2009 Dec;40(4):435-460.