Kinematics of the Asal rift (djibouti) determined from the deformation of Fieale volcano

Jean Bernard De Chabalier, Jean Philippe Avouac

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

71 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Because of its subaerial exposure the Asal rift segment provides an exceptional opportunity to quantify the deformation field of an active rift and assess the contribution of tectonics and volcanism to rifting processes. The present topography of the Asal rift results from the tectonic dismemberment during the last 100,000 years of a large central volcanic edifice that formed astride the rift zone 300,000 to 100,000 years ago. Three-dimensional deformation of this volcano has been quantified from the combined analysis of the topography and geology. The analysis indicates that spreading at 17 to 29 millimeters per year in a N40° ± 5°E direction accounts for most of the separation between Arabia and Somalia. The small topographic subsidence relative to extension suggests that tectonic thinning of the crust has been balanced by injection and underplating of magmatic material of near crustal density. The methodology developed in this study could also be applied to quantify deformation in relatively inaccessible areas where the main available information is topography or bathymetry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1677-1681
Number of pages5
JournalScience
Volume265
Issue number5179
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1994

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