Kicking It Out? Football Fans’ Views of Anti-Racism Initiatives in English Football

Connor Penfold, Jamie Cleland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
992 Downloads (Pure)


This article explores the views of 906 football fans (96% of whom selfidentified as White), collected via an online survey from May-June 2019, regarding the impact of the leading equality and inclusion organization, Kick It Out, in delivering initiatives to challenge the multifaceted expressions of racism by some White English football fans. Whilst fans
recognize the importance of raising awareness of racial discrimination, nearly three quarters of White fans do not engage with any Kick It Out initiatives. In the face of new
challenges, including the largely unregulated space of social media, and a socio-political climate that has facilitated the resurgence of overtly expressed bigoted, colour and
cultural-based racisms, the article stresses that the English football authorities must support the work of anti-racism organizations to increase their potency amongst White fans if racial discrimination is to be more effectively challenged in the future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
JournalJournal of Sport and Social Issues
Issue number0
Early online date13 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished online - 13 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.


  • fan culture
  • football
  • racism
  • Whiteness
  • Kick It Out
  • kick it out
  • whiteness
  • fans


Dive into the research topics of 'Kicking It Out? Football Fans’ Views of Anti-Racism Initiatives in English Football'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this