Kazakhstan: Modernising Government in the Context of Political Inertia

Colin Knox

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Kazakhstan declared its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and joinedthe Commonwealth of Independent States. Since then it has witnessed a remarkableeconomic transformation under the leadership of President NursultanNazarbayev. Pursuing a policy of ‘economy first and then politics’, Kazakhstan isunder growing pressure to engage in political reforms which include a modernizationagenda to improve public service provision. Recent constitutional reformshave received a lukewarm reaction from the international community thatKazakhstan is keen to become part of. At the same time a progressive agenda ofpublic services reform is well under way rooted in new public management and adesire to become much more customer focussed in their orientation. This articleexamines the parallel themes of political reforms and public services modernizationin Kazakhstan.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages477-496
    JournalInternational Review of Administrative Sciences
    Volume74
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

    Fingerprint

    Kazakhstan
    political reform
    public service
    Commonwealth of Independent States
    New Public Management
    USSR
    president
    customer
    leadership
    reform
    economy
    politics
    community

    Keywords

    • developing countries
    • governance
    • Kazakhstan
    • modernizing
    • performance measurement
    • public management reform

    Cite this

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    title = "Kazakhstan: Modernising Government in the Context of Political Inertia",
    abstract = "Kazakhstan declared its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and joinedthe Commonwealth of Independent States. Since then it has witnessed a remarkableeconomic transformation under the leadership of President NursultanNazarbayev. Pursuing a policy of ‘economy first and then politics’, Kazakhstan isunder growing pressure to engage in political reforms which include a modernizationagenda to improve public service provision. Recent constitutional reformshave received a lukewarm reaction from the international community thatKazakhstan is keen to become part of. At the same time a progressive agenda ofpublic services reform is well under way rooted in new public management and adesire to become much more customer focussed in their orientation. This articleexamines the parallel themes of political reforms and public services modernizationin Kazakhstan.",
    keywords = "developing countries, governance, Kazakhstan, modernizing, performance measurement, public management reform",
    author = "Colin Knox",
    note = "Reference text: Abdykarimov, O. (2006) ‘The State Commission on Democratic Reforms’. Statement by Secretary of State of the Republic of Kazakhstan at special meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council, Vienna, 26th September. Bangura, Y. and Larbi, G., (eds.) (2006) Public Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Capacity Challenges to Improve Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Batley, R.A. (1999) ‘The New Public Management in Developing Countries: Implications for Policy and Organisational Reform’, Journal of International Development, 11: 761 – 765. Bebbington, A. and McCourt, W. (2007) Development Success: Statecraft in the South. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Coombes, D. (1998) ‘Alternative Paths for the States of Central and Eastern’: 418-426 in T.Verheijen and D.Coombes (eds.), Innovations in Public Management: Perspectives from East and West Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Cummings, S. (2005) Kazakhstan: Power and Elite. London: I.B. Tauris. Di Maggio, P. and Powell, W.W. (1983) ‘The Iron Cage Revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organisational filed’ American Sociological Review: 48: 147-160. Di Nino, C. (2007) ‘Ruling Party sweeps Kazakhstan election, official count shows’ Washington Post, 20th August. Ertysbaev, E.K. (2001) ‘Institution of the Presidency as a tool of modernization of post-totalitarian transit societies’. Conference Paper, 6th April: Almaty - Kazakhstan Ferlie, E., Ashburner, L., Fitzgerald, L., and Pettigrew, A. (1996) The New Public Management in Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ferlie, E. and Fitzgerald, L. (2002) ‘The Sustainability of the New Public Management in the UK’: 342 – 353 in in K. McLaughlin, S. Osborne and E. Ferlie (eds.) New Public Management: Current Trends and Future Prospects. London: Routledge. Guy Peters, B., Rhodes, R.A.W and Wright, V. (eds.) (2000) Administering the Summit: Administration of the Core Executive in Developed Countries. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Greenwood, R. and Hinings, C.R. (1993) ‘Understanding Strategic Change: the contribution of archetypes’ Academy of Management Journal, 36 (5): 1052-1081. Haynes, P. (2003) Managing Complexity in the Public Services. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Heywood, A. (1997) Politics. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Hinings, C.R. and Greenwood, R. (1988) The Dynamics of Strategic Change. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Holley, D. (2007) ‘Kazakhstan lifts term limits on long-ruling leader’ Los Angeles Times, 19th May. Hood, C. (1989) ‘Public Administration and Public Policy: Intellectual Challenges for the 1990s’, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 48: 346-358. Homburg, V., Pollitt, C. and van Thiel, S. (2007) ‘Introduction’: 1 - 9 in C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel and V. Homburg (eds.) New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A. and Mastruzzi, M. (2007) Governance Matters VI: Governance Indicators for 1996-2006. Washington: World Bank. Keesing Record of World Events (2005) ‘Kazakhstan: Presidential Elections’. December. Kettl, D. (2005) The Global Public Management Revolution: A Report on the Transformation of Governance (2nd ed.) Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Kickert, W. (1997) ‘Public Governance in the Netherlands: an alternative to Anglo-American manageralism’ Public Administration 75: 731 – 752. Lane, J-E (2000) New Public Management. London: Routledge. Larbi, G. (2006) ‘Applying the New Public Management in Developing Countries’ 25-52 in Y. Bangura and G. Larbi (eds.) Public Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Capacity Challenges to Improve Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Larbi, G. and Bangura, Y. (2006) ‘Public Sector Reform – What are the Lessons from Experience?’ 277 - 287 in Y. Bangura and G. Larbi (eds.) Public Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Capacity Challenges to Improve Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Lynn, L. E. (1998) ‘The New Public Management as an International Phenomenon: a sceptical viewpoint’ in L. Jones and K. Schedler (eds.) International Perspectives on New Public Management. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Lynn, L. E. (2006) Public Management Old and New. Abingdon: Routledge Manning, N. (2001) ‘The legacy of New Public Management in developing countries’ International Review of Administrative Sciences, 67 (2): 297-312 Mathiasen, D. (2005) ‘International Public Management’: 643 – 670 in E. Ferlie.. L. Lynn and C. Pollitt, The Oxford Handbook of Public Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press McCourt, W. (2002) ‘New Public Management in Developing Countries’: 227 – 242 in K. McLaughlin, S. Osborne and E. Ferlie (eds) New Public Management: Current Trends and Future Prospects. London: Routledge. McLaughlin, K. and Osborne, S. (2002) ‘The New Public Management in Context’: 7 – 14 in K. McLaughlin, S. Osborne and E. Ferlie (eds.) New Public Management: Current Trends and Future Prospects. London: Routledge. Mittleton-Kelly, E. (2003) ‘Ten principles of complexity and enabling structures’ in E. Mittleton-Kelly (ed.) Complex Systems and Evolutionary Perspectives of Organisations: the application of complexity theory to organisations. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Nazarbayev, N. (2007a) ‘A new stage in the democratisation of Kazakhstan – the expedited development of a free democratic society’. Speech by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the joint meeting/session of the chambers of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan 16th May. Nazarbayev, N. (2007b) ‘Further democratic reform in Kazakhstan is underway’ accessed via www.kazakhstan.embassy.org Parkinson, Rt.Hon. Lord., Kilclooney, Lord., Deva, N., Frost, G., Minogue, K. and O’Keeffe, D. (2005). Findings of the Caspian Information Centre Election Observation Mission (EOM). Presidential Elections 4th December 2005. Polidano, C. (1999) The New Public Management in Developing Countries. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester. Pollitt, C. (2003) The Essential Public Manager. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Pollitt, C. and Bouckaert, G. (2004) Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pollitt, C. (2007) ‘Convergence or Divergence: what has been happening in Europe’: 10 – 25 in C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel and V. Homburg (eds.) New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Schick, A. (1998) ‘Why Developing Countries should not try the New Zealand Reforms’, World Bank Research Observer, 13 (1): 123-131. Shirokova, Y. (2007) ‘Public Service Standards: international experience, development and implementation in Kazakhstan’. Eurasian Training Centre. Teisman, G. and van Buuren, A. (2007) ‘Implementing NPM: a complexity perspective on public management reform trajectories’: 181- 195 in C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel and V. Homburg (eds.) New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan The Economist (2007) ‘Kazakhstan’s president for life?’ 26th May. United Nations Development Programme (2007) Human Development Report 2007/08. Fighting Climate Change: human solidarity in a divided world. New York: UNDP. van Thiel, S., Pollitt, C. and Homburg V. (2007)‘Conclusions’: 196 – 203 in C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel and V. Homburg (eds.) New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Verheijen, T. (1998) ‘NPM Reforms and Western Reform Strategies: The Wrong Medicine for Central and Eastern Europe?: 407- 417 in T. Verheijen and D. Coombes. Innovations in Public Management: Perspectives from East and West Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Verheijen, T. (2003) ‘Public Administration on Post-Communist States’: 489 - 497 in B. Guy Peters and Jon Pierre (eds.) Handbook of Public Administration. London: Sage Verheijen, T. and Dobrolyubova, Y. (2007) ‘Performance management in the Baltic States and Russia: success against the odds?’ International Review of Administrative Sciences Vol. 73 (2): 205-216. Wolowska, A. (2004) Kazakhstan: The Regional Success Story. CES Studies. World Bank (2007) World Development Report 2007: Development and the Next Generation. Washington DC: The World Bank. Zhumabayev, Y. (2007) ‘Parliament Approves Constitutional Changes’ Kazakhstan Today 22nd May. Zucker, L. (1983) ‘Organisations as Institutions’ in S. B. Bacharach (ed.) Research into the Sociology of Organisations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Zucker, L. (1987) ‘Institutional Theories of Organisation’ Annual Review of Sociology: 13: 443-464.",
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    Kazakhstan: Modernising Government in the Context of Political Inertia. / Knox, Colin.

    In: International Review of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2008, p. 477-496.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Kazakhstan: Modernising Government in the Context of Political Inertia

    AU - Knox, Colin

    N1 - Reference text: Abdykarimov, O. (2006) ‘The State Commission on Democratic Reforms’. Statement by Secretary of State of the Republic of Kazakhstan at special meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council, Vienna, 26th September. Bangura, Y. and Larbi, G., (eds.) (2006) Public Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Capacity Challenges to Improve Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Batley, R.A. (1999) ‘The New Public Management in Developing Countries: Implications for Policy and Organisational Reform’, Journal of International Development, 11: 761 – 765. Bebbington, A. and McCourt, W. (2007) Development Success: Statecraft in the South. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Coombes, D. (1998) ‘Alternative Paths for the States of Central and Eastern’: 418-426 in T.Verheijen and D.Coombes (eds.), Innovations in Public Management: Perspectives from East and West Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Cummings, S. (2005) Kazakhstan: Power and Elite. London: I.B. Tauris. Di Maggio, P. and Powell, W.W. (1983) ‘The Iron Cage Revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organisational filed’ American Sociological Review: 48: 147-160. Di Nino, C. (2007) ‘Ruling Party sweeps Kazakhstan election, official count shows’ Washington Post, 20th August. Ertysbaev, E.K. (2001) ‘Institution of the Presidency as a tool of modernization of post-totalitarian transit societies’. Conference Paper, 6th April: Almaty - Kazakhstan Ferlie, E., Ashburner, L., Fitzgerald, L., and Pettigrew, A. (1996) The New Public Management in Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ferlie, E. and Fitzgerald, L. (2002) ‘The Sustainability of the New Public Management in the UK’: 342 – 353 in in K. McLaughlin, S. Osborne and E. Ferlie (eds.) New Public Management: Current Trends and Future Prospects. London: Routledge. Guy Peters, B., Rhodes, R.A.W and Wright, V. (eds.) (2000) Administering the Summit: Administration of the Core Executive in Developed Countries. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Greenwood, R. and Hinings, C.R. (1993) ‘Understanding Strategic Change: the contribution of archetypes’ Academy of Management Journal, 36 (5): 1052-1081. Haynes, P. (2003) Managing Complexity in the Public Services. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Heywood, A. (1997) Politics. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Hinings, C.R. and Greenwood, R. (1988) The Dynamics of Strategic Change. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Holley, D. (2007) ‘Kazakhstan lifts term limits on long-ruling leader’ Los Angeles Times, 19th May. Hood, C. (1989) ‘Public Administration and Public Policy: Intellectual Challenges for the 1990s’, Australian Journal of Public Administration, 48: 346-358. Homburg, V., Pollitt, C. and van Thiel, S. (2007) ‘Introduction’: 1 - 9 in C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel and V. Homburg (eds.) New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A. and Mastruzzi, M. (2007) Governance Matters VI: Governance Indicators for 1996-2006. Washington: World Bank. Keesing Record of World Events (2005) ‘Kazakhstan: Presidential Elections’. December. Kettl, D. (2005) The Global Public Management Revolution: A Report on the Transformation of Governance (2nd ed.) Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Kickert, W. (1997) ‘Public Governance in the Netherlands: an alternative to Anglo-American manageralism’ Public Administration 75: 731 – 752. Lane, J-E (2000) New Public Management. London: Routledge. Larbi, G. (2006) ‘Applying the New Public Management in Developing Countries’ 25-52 in Y. Bangura and G. Larbi (eds.) Public Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Capacity Challenges to Improve Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Larbi, G. and Bangura, Y. (2006) ‘Public Sector Reform – What are the Lessons from Experience?’ 277 - 287 in Y. Bangura and G. Larbi (eds.) Public Sector Reform in Developing Countries: Capacity Challenges to Improve Services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Lynn, L. E. (1998) ‘The New Public Management as an International Phenomenon: a sceptical viewpoint’ in L. Jones and K. Schedler (eds.) International Perspectives on New Public Management. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Lynn, L. E. (2006) Public Management Old and New. Abingdon: Routledge Manning, N. (2001) ‘The legacy of New Public Management in developing countries’ International Review of Administrative Sciences, 67 (2): 297-312 Mathiasen, D. (2005) ‘International Public Management’: 643 – 670 in E. Ferlie.. L. Lynn and C. Pollitt, The Oxford Handbook of Public Management. Oxford: Oxford University Press McCourt, W. (2002) ‘New Public Management in Developing Countries’: 227 – 242 in K. McLaughlin, S. Osborne and E. Ferlie (eds) New Public Management: Current Trends and Future Prospects. London: Routledge. McLaughlin, K. and Osborne, S. (2002) ‘The New Public Management in Context’: 7 – 14 in K. McLaughlin, S. Osborne and E. Ferlie (eds.) New Public Management: Current Trends and Future Prospects. London: Routledge. Mittleton-Kelly, E. (2003) ‘Ten principles of complexity and enabling structures’ in E. Mittleton-Kelly (ed.) Complex Systems and Evolutionary Perspectives of Organisations: the application of complexity theory to organisations. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Nazarbayev, N. (2007a) ‘A new stage in the democratisation of Kazakhstan – the expedited development of a free democratic society’. Speech by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the joint meeting/session of the chambers of the Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan 16th May. Nazarbayev, N. (2007b) ‘Further democratic reform in Kazakhstan is underway’ accessed via www.kazakhstan.embassy.org Parkinson, Rt.Hon. Lord., Kilclooney, Lord., Deva, N., Frost, G., Minogue, K. and O’Keeffe, D. (2005). Findings of the Caspian Information Centre Election Observation Mission (EOM). Presidential Elections 4th December 2005. Polidano, C. (1999) The New Public Management in Developing Countries. Manchester: Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester. Pollitt, C. (2003) The Essential Public Manager. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Pollitt, C. and Bouckaert, G. (2004) Public Management Reform: A Comparative Analysis (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pollitt, C. (2007) ‘Convergence or Divergence: what has been happening in Europe’: 10 – 25 in C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel and V. Homburg (eds.) New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Schick, A. (1998) ‘Why Developing Countries should not try the New Zealand Reforms’, World Bank Research Observer, 13 (1): 123-131. Shirokova, Y. (2007) ‘Public Service Standards: international experience, development and implementation in Kazakhstan’. Eurasian Training Centre. Teisman, G. and van Buuren, A. (2007) ‘Implementing NPM: a complexity perspective on public management reform trajectories’: 181- 195 in C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel and V. Homburg (eds.) New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan The Economist (2007) ‘Kazakhstan’s president for life?’ 26th May. United Nations Development Programme (2007) Human Development Report 2007/08. Fighting Climate Change: human solidarity in a divided world. New York: UNDP. van Thiel, S., Pollitt, C. and Homburg V. (2007)‘Conclusions’: 196 – 203 in C. Pollitt, S. van Thiel and V. Homburg (eds.) New Public Management in Europe: Adaptation and Alternatives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Verheijen, T. (1998) ‘NPM Reforms and Western Reform Strategies: The Wrong Medicine for Central and Eastern Europe?: 407- 417 in T. Verheijen and D. Coombes. Innovations in Public Management: Perspectives from East and West Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Verheijen, T. (2003) ‘Public Administration on Post-Communist States’: 489 - 497 in B. Guy Peters and Jon Pierre (eds.) Handbook of Public Administration. London: Sage Verheijen, T. and Dobrolyubova, Y. (2007) ‘Performance management in the Baltic States and Russia: success against the odds?’ International Review of Administrative Sciences Vol. 73 (2): 205-216. Wolowska, A. (2004) Kazakhstan: The Regional Success Story. CES Studies. World Bank (2007) World Development Report 2007: Development and the Next Generation. Washington DC: The World Bank. Zhumabayev, Y. (2007) ‘Parliament Approves Constitutional Changes’ Kazakhstan Today 22nd May. Zucker, L. (1983) ‘Organisations as Institutions’ in S. B. Bacharach (ed.) Research into the Sociology of Organisations. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Zucker, L. (1987) ‘Institutional Theories of Organisation’ Annual Review of Sociology: 13: 443-464.

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    AB - Kazakhstan declared its independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and joinedthe Commonwealth of Independent States. Since then it has witnessed a remarkableeconomic transformation under the leadership of President NursultanNazarbayev. Pursuing a policy of ‘economy first and then politics’, Kazakhstan isunder growing pressure to engage in political reforms which include a modernizationagenda to improve public service provision. Recent constitutional reformshave received a lukewarm reaction from the international community thatKazakhstan is keen to become part of. At the same time a progressive agenda ofpublic services reform is well under way rooted in new public management and adesire to become much more customer focussed in their orientation. This articleexamines the parallel themes of political reforms and public services modernizationin Kazakhstan.

    KW - developing countries

    KW - governance

    KW - Kazakhstan

    KW - modernizing

    KW - performance measurement

    KW - public management reform

    M3 - Article

    VL - 74

    SP - 477

    EP - 496

    JO - International Review of Administrative Sciences

    T2 - International Review of Administrative Sciences

    JF - International Review of Administrative Sciences

    SN - 0020-8523

    IS - 3

    ER -