Journeys through the Hidden City: Giving visibility to the Material Events of Conflict in Belfast

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The ‘peace-walls’ of Belfast represent a widely acknowledged architectural legacy of the Troubles, the period between 1969 and 1994 when sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland was most extreme. This paper reveals a further crucial but unacknowledged architectural legacy. It is a Hidden City of unassuming inner-city architecture where everyday pervasiveness masks a capacity to perpetuate conflict-era forces in a post-conflict city. The first half of the paper presents a Foucauldian analysis of declassified government documents revealing the knowledge created through undisclosed systems of power-relations. Here a problematization of accepted norms reassesses the Troubles-era urban landscape and exposes the latent significance of its socio-material complexity. The second half of the paper illustrates the material consequences of related hidden policy practices on the contemporary post-conflict community. It borrows from Goffman to offer an exposition of the institutionalisation of movement and meaning at play in the Hidden City. A triangulation of interviews, photography and architectural fieldwork is used to theorise the Material Event, a construction of meaning derived from the interaction between people, architecture and the wider systems of power-relations. The paper concludes by demonstrating the complexity of the systemic challenges posed by the Material Events and how these help constrain conflict-transformation practices.
LanguageEnglish
PagesTBC-TBC
JournalEnvironment and Planning D: Society and Space
VolumeTBC
Early online date5 May 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 May 2017

Fingerprint

visibility
event
power relations
triangulation
photography
institutionalization
fieldwork
peace
city
conflict
material
interaction
interview
community

Keywords

  • Architecture
  • Conflict
  • Foucault
  • Belfast
  • The Troubles
  • Security.

Cite this

@article{4551cdf7c1c8444d96340a4ced6b5e87,
title = "Journeys through the Hidden City: Giving visibility to the Material Events of Conflict in Belfast",
abstract = "The ‘peace-walls’ of Belfast represent a widely acknowledged architectural legacy of the Troubles, the period between 1969 and 1994 when sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland was most extreme. This paper reveals a further crucial but unacknowledged architectural legacy. It is a Hidden City of unassuming inner-city architecture where everyday pervasiveness masks a capacity to perpetuate conflict-era forces in a post-conflict city. The first half of the paper presents a Foucauldian analysis of declassified government documents revealing the knowledge created through undisclosed systems of power-relations. Here a problematization of accepted norms reassesses the Troubles-era urban landscape and exposes the latent significance of its socio-material complexity. The second half of the paper illustrates the material consequences of related hidden policy practices on the contemporary post-conflict community. It borrows from Goffman to offer an exposition of the institutionalisation of movement and meaning at play in the Hidden City. A triangulation of interviews, photography and architectural fieldwork is used to theorise the Material Event, a construction of meaning derived from the interaction between people, architecture and the wider systems of power-relations. The paper concludes by demonstrating the complexity of the systemic challenges posed by the Material Events and how these help constrain conflict-transformation practices.",
keywords = "Architecture, Conflict, Foucault, Belfast, The Troubles, Security.",
author = "David Coyles",
note = "Reference text: Aiken NT, 2010, {"}Learning to live together: Transitional justice and intergroup reconciliation in Northern Ireland{"} International Journal of Transitional Justice 4 166-188 Anderson B, 2011, {"}Facing the Future Enemy US Counterinsurgency Doctrine and the Pre-insurgent{"} Theory, Culture & Society 28 216-240 Appleyard D, 1969, {"}Why buildings are known{"} Environment and Behavior 131-156 Appleyard D, 1982, Liveable Spaces (University of California Press, Los Angeles) Appleyard D, Lynch K and Myer JR, 1964, The View from the Road (MIT Press, Berkeley, CA) Belfast City Council, 2010, Renewing the Routes Programme: Restoring Local Pride in Belfast (Belfast City Council, Belfast) Ben-Joseph E, 1995, {"}Changing the residential street scene: adapting the shared street (woonerf) concept to the suburban environment{"} Journal of the American Planning Association 61 504-515 Boal FW, 1996, {"}Integration and division: sharing and segregating in Belfast{"} Planning Practice and Research 11 151-158 Boal FW, 1969, {"}Territoriality on the shankill‐falls divide, Belfast{"} Irish Geography 6 30-50 Bollens SA, 1999, Urban Peacebuilding in Divided Societies: Belfast and Johannesburg (Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado. USA) Bollens SA, 2000, On Narrow Ground: Urban Policy and Ethnic Conflict in Jerusalem and Belfast (State, Albany) Brantingham PL and Brantingham PJ, 1993, {"}Nodes, paths and edges: Considerations on the complexity of crime and the physical environment{"} Journal of Environmental Psychology 13 3-28 Brett CEB, 1986, Housing a Divided Community (Institute of Public Administration, Dublin) Brown S, 1985, {"}Central Belfast's security segment: an urban phenomenon{"} Area 1-9 Byrne J, Heenan CG and Robinson G, 2012, Attitudes to Peace Walls (Northern Ireland Executive, Belfast) Calme J and Charlesworth E, 2008, Divided Cities: Belfast, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mostar and Nicosia (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA) Calvino I, 1997, Invisible Cities (Vintage Classics, Reading) Campbell J, 2013, Setting the Truth Free: Inside the Bloody Sunday Justice Campaign (Liberties Press, Dublin) Cooper J, Ryley T and Smyth A, 2001, {"}Contemporary lifestyles and the implications for sustainable development policy: lessons from the UK's most car dependent city, Belfast{"} Cities 18 103-113 Coyles D, 2013, {"}Reflections on Titanic Quarter: the cultural and material legacy of an historic Belfast brand{"} The Journal of Architecture 18 331-363 Coyles D, Wylie D and Spier S, 2013, Connected Communities: Communities as Constructs of People and Architecture (Arts and Humanities Research Council, Online) Cullen G, 1961, The Concise Townscape (Architectural Press, London) Dant T, 2004, {"}The driver-car{"} Theory, Culture & Society 21 61-79 Deleuze G, 1999, Foucault (Continuum, London) Essex County Council, 1973, Design Guide for Residential Areas (Essex County Council, Chelmsford) Featherstone M, 2004, {"}Automobilities An Introduction{"} Theory, Culture & Society 21 1-24 Flynn M, 2011, {"}Decision-making and contested heritage in Northern Ireland: the former Maze prison/Long Kesh{"} Irish Political Studies 26 383-401 Foucault M, 1970, The Order of Things (Travistock, London) Foucault M, 1972a, The Archaeology of Knowledge (Tavistock, London) Foucault M, 1972b, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Allen Lane, London) Foucault M, 1980, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977 (Harvester Press, Brighton) Foucault M, 1982, {"}The subject and power{"} Critical inquiry 777-795 Gaffikin F and Morrissey M, 2011, Planning in Divided Cities: Collaborative Shaping of Contested Space (Blackwell, Oxford) Garland D, 1997, {"}'Governmentality' and the problem of crime: Foucault, criminology, sociology{"} Theoretical criminology 1 173-214 Garland D, 2014, {"}What is a “history of the present”? On Foucault’s genealogies and their critical preconditions{"} Punishment & Society 16 365-384 Goffman E, 1951, {"}Symbols of class status{"} The British journal of sociology 2 294-304 Goffman E, 1959, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Double Day, Garden City, NY) Goffman E, 1961, Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates (Penguin, Harmondsworth) Goffman E, 1963, Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social Organization of Gatherings (The Free Press, New York) Goody B, 1988, {"}The Essex Design Guide Revisited{"} Town and Country Planning 5 176-178 Graham B and Nash C, 2006, {"}A shared future: territoriality, pluralism and public policy in Northern Ireland{"} Political Geography 25 253-278 Graham S, 2009, {"}Cities as battlespace: the new military urbanism{"} City 13 383-402 Graham S, 2011, Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism (Verso, London) Graham S, ed., 2008, Cities, War, and Terrorism: Towards an Urban Geopolitics (Blackwell, Oxford) Hacking I, 2004, {"}Between Michel Foucault and Erving Goffman: between discourse in the abstract and face-to-face interaction{"} Economy and Society 33 277-302 Hamber B, 2002, {"}Rights and reasons: challenges for truth recovery in South Africa and Northern Ireland{"} Fordham International Law Journal 26 1074 Hannigan J, 1995, Environmental Sociology: A Social Constructionist Perspective (Routledge, New York) Hepburn AC, 1996, A Past Apart: Studies in the History of Catholic Belfast, 1850-1950 (Ulster Historical Foundation, Belfast) Hunt A and Wickham G, 1994, Foucault and Law (Pluto, London) Jensen OB, 2006, {"}‘Facework’, flow and the city: Simmel, Goffman, and mobility in the contemporary city{"} Mobilities 1 143-165 Jones E, 1960, A Social Geography of Belfast (Oxford University Press, Oxford) Katyal NK, 2002, {"}Architecture as crime control{"} Yale Law Journal 1039-1139 Kendall G and Wickham G, 2000, Using Foucault's Methods (Sage publications, London) Kitson F, 1972, Low Intensity Operations (Faber, London) Kitson F, 1977, Bunch of Five (Faber, London) Kraay JH, 1986, {"}Woonerf and other experiments in the Netherlands{"} Built Environment 12 20-29 Lundy P, 2009, {"}Can the Past Be Policed: Lessons from the Historical Enquiries Team Northern Ireland{"} Law and Social Challenges 11 109 Mann M, 1984, {"}The autonomous power of the state: its origins, mechanisms and results{"} European journal of sociology 25 185-213 Mann M, 2006, {"}The sources of social power revisited: a response to criticism{"}, in An Anatomy of Power: The Social Theory of Michael Mann, Eds J Hall and R Schroeder (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)343-396 Mann M, 2012, The Sources of Social Power: Volume 3, Global Empires and Revolution, 1890-1945 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom) Mann M and Haugaard M, 2011, {"}Reflections on the sources of power{"} Journal of Political Power 4 169-178 Manning J, 2004, {"}Racism in three dimensions: South African architecture and the ideology of white superiority{"} Social identities 10 527-536 McAleese D, 2011, {"}Loyalist murals return to east Belfast, and few welcome them{"} Belfast Telegraph 2014, 10/23 http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/local-national/northern-ireland/loyalist-murals-return-to-east-belfast-and-few-welcome-them-28616810.html McGovern M, 2013, {"}Inquiring into collusion? Collusion, the state and the management of truth recovery In Northern Ireland{"} State Crime Journal 2 4-29 Mitchell D, 2003, {"}Cultural landscapes: just landscapes or landscapes of justice?{"} Progress in Human Geography 27 787-796 Monaghan R and Shirlow P, 2011, {"}Forward to the past? Loyalist paramilitarism in Northern Ireland since 1994{"} Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 34 649-665 Neill WJ, 2006, {"}Return to Titanic and lost in the Maze: the search for representation of ‘post-conflict’ Belfast{"} Space and Polity 10 109-120 Newman O, 1972, Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City (Architectural Press, London) Newman O, 1976, Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space (National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, Washington, DC) Office of First Minister and deputy First Minister of the Northern Ireland Executive, 2013, Together: Building a United Community Strategy (OFMDFM, Belfast) Owen D, 2013, Maturity and Modernity: Nietzsche, Weber, Foucault and the Ambivalence of Reason (Routledge, London and New York) Piquard B and Swenarton M, 2011, {"}Learning from Architecture and Conflict{"} The Journal of Architecture 16 1-13 Power A, Willmot H and Davidson R, 2011, Family Futures: Childhood and Poverty in Urban Neighbourhoods (Policy Press, Bristol) Rabinow P and Foucault M, 1984, {"}Space, Knowledge and Power{"}, in The Foucault Reader, Ed P Rabinow (Pantheon, New York) Robinson F and Shaw K, 1994, {"}Urban policy under the conservatives: In search of the big idea?{"} Local Economy 9 224-235 Sassen S, 2010, {"}When the city itself becomes a technology of war{"} Theory, Culture & Society 27 33-50 Sheller M, 2004, {"}Automotive emotions feeling the car{"} Theory, culture & society 21 221-242 Sheller M and Urry J, 2000, {"}The city and the car{"} International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24 737-757 Sheller M and Urry J, 2003, {"}Mobile transformations of public and private life{"} Theory, Culture & Society 20 107-125 Shirlow P, 2006, {"}Belfast: the ‘post-conflict’city{"} Space and Polity 10 99-107 Shirlow P and Murtagh B, 2006, Belfast: Segregation, Violence and the City (Pluto Press, London) Singleton D, 1984, The Belfast Experience: Housing Renewal in Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland Housing Executive, Belfast) Smith DM, 2003, The Apartheid City and Beyond: Urbanization and Social Change in South Africa (Routledge, London) Smith RW and Bugni V, 2006, {"}Symbolic interaction theory and architecture{"} Symbolic interaction 29 123-155 Weizman E, 2010, {"}Legislative Attack{"} Theory, Culture & Society 27 11-22 Wiener R, 1976, The Rape and Plunder of the Shankill in Belfast: People and Planning (Nothems Press, Belfast) Wylie D, 2007, British Watchtowers (Steidl, G{\"o}ttingen) Yiftachel O, 1994, {"}The dark side of modernism: planning as control of an ethnic minority{"} Postmodern cities and spaces 216-242 Yiftachel O, 1998, {"}Planning and social control: Exploring the dark side{"} Journal of Planning Literature 12 395-406 Yiftachel O and Yacobi H, 2003, {"}Urban ethnocracy: ethnicization and the production of space in an Israeli mixed city'{"} Environment and Planning D 21 673-694",
year = "2017",
month = "5",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1177/0263775817707528",
language = "English",
volume = "TBC",
pages = "TBC--TBC",
journal = "Environment and Planning D: Society and Space",
issn = "0263-7758",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Journeys through the Hidden City: Giving visibility to the Material Events of Conflict in Belfast

AU - Coyles, David

N1 - Reference text: Aiken NT, 2010, "Learning to live together: Transitional justice and intergroup reconciliation in Northern Ireland" International Journal of Transitional Justice 4 166-188 Anderson B, 2011, "Facing the Future Enemy US Counterinsurgency Doctrine and the Pre-insurgent" Theory, Culture & Society 28 216-240 Appleyard D, 1969, "Why buildings are known" Environment and Behavior 131-156 Appleyard D, 1982, Liveable Spaces (University of California Press, Los Angeles) Appleyard D, Lynch K and Myer JR, 1964, The View from the Road (MIT Press, Berkeley, CA) Belfast City Council, 2010, Renewing the Routes Programme: Restoring Local Pride in Belfast (Belfast City Council, Belfast) Ben-Joseph E, 1995, "Changing the residential street scene: adapting the shared street (woonerf) concept to the suburban environment" Journal of the American Planning Association 61 504-515 Boal FW, 1996, "Integration and division: sharing and segregating in Belfast" Planning Practice and Research 11 151-158 Boal FW, 1969, "Territoriality on the shankill‐falls divide, Belfast" Irish Geography 6 30-50 Bollens SA, 1999, Urban Peacebuilding in Divided Societies: Belfast and Johannesburg (Westview Press Inc., Boulder, Colorado. USA) Bollens SA, 2000, On Narrow Ground: Urban Policy and Ethnic Conflict in Jerusalem and Belfast (State, Albany) Brantingham PL and Brantingham PJ, 1993, "Nodes, paths and edges: Considerations on the complexity of crime and the physical environment" Journal of Environmental Psychology 13 3-28 Brett CEB, 1986, Housing a Divided Community (Institute of Public Administration, Dublin) Brown S, 1985, "Central Belfast's security segment: an urban phenomenon" Area 1-9 Byrne J, Heenan CG and Robinson G, 2012, Attitudes to Peace Walls (Northern Ireland Executive, Belfast) Calme J and Charlesworth E, 2008, Divided Cities: Belfast, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mostar and Nicosia (University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA) Calvino I, 1997, Invisible Cities (Vintage Classics, Reading) Campbell J, 2013, Setting the Truth Free: Inside the Bloody Sunday Justice Campaign (Liberties Press, Dublin) Cooper J, Ryley T and Smyth A, 2001, "Contemporary lifestyles and the implications for sustainable development policy: lessons from the UK's most car dependent city, Belfast" Cities 18 103-113 Coyles D, 2013, "Reflections on Titanic Quarter: the cultural and material legacy of an historic Belfast brand" The Journal of Architecture 18 331-363 Coyles D, Wylie D and Spier S, 2013, Connected Communities: Communities as Constructs of People and Architecture (Arts and Humanities Research Council, Online) Cullen G, 1961, The Concise Townscape (Architectural Press, London) Dant T, 2004, "The driver-car" Theory, Culture & Society 21 61-79 Deleuze G, 1999, Foucault (Continuum, London) Essex County Council, 1973, Design Guide for Residential Areas (Essex County Council, Chelmsford) Featherstone M, 2004, "Automobilities An Introduction" Theory, Culture & Society 21 1-24 Flynn M, 2011, "Decision-making and contested heritage in Northern Ireland: the former Maze prison/Long Kesh" Irish Political Studies 26 383-401 Foucault M, 1970, The Order of Things (Travistock, London) Foucault M, 1972a, The Archaeology of Knowledge (Tavistock, London) Foucault M, 1972b, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (Allen Lane, London) Foucault M, 1980, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977 (Harvester Press, Brighton) Foucault M, 1982, "The subject and power" Critical inquiry 777-795 Gaffikin F and Morrissey M, 2011, Planning in Divided Cities: Collaborative Shaping of Contested Space (Blackwell, Oxford) Garland D, 1997, "'Governmentality' and the problem of crime: Foucault, criminology, sociology" Theoretical criminology 1 173-214 Garland D, 2014, "What is a “history of the present”? On Foucault’s genealogies and their critical preconditions" Punishment & Society 16 365-384 Goffman E, 1951, "Symbols of class status" The British journal of sociology 2 294-304 Goffman E, 1959, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Double Day, Garden City, NY) Goffman E, 1961, Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates (Penguin, Harmondsworth) Goffman E, 1963, Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social Organization of Gatherings (The Free Press, New York) Goody B, 1988, "The Essex Design Guide Revisited" Town and Country Planning 5 176-178 Graham B and Nash C, 2006, "A shared future: territoriality, pluralism and public policy in Northern Ireland" Political Geography 25 253-278 Graham S, 2009, "Cities as battlespace: the new military urbanism" City 13 383-402 Graham S, 2011, Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism (Verso, London) Graham S, ed., 2008, Cities, War, and Terrorism: Towards an Urban Geopolitics (Blackwell, Oxford) Hacking I, 2004, "Between Michel Foucault and Erving Goffman: between discourse in the abstract and face-to-face interaction" Economy and Society 33 277-302 Hamber B, 2002, "Rights and reasons: challenges for truth recovery in South Africa and Northern Ireland" Fordham International Law Journal 26 1074 Hannigan J, 1995, Environmental Sociology: A Social Constructionist Perspective (Routledge, New York) Hepburn AC, 1996, A Past Apart: Studies in the History of Catholic Belfast, 1850-1950 (Ulster Historical Foundation, Belfast) Hunt A and Wickham G, 1994, Foucault and Law (Pluto, London) Jensen OB, 2006, "‘Facework’, flow and the city: Simmel, Goffman, and mobility in the contemporary city" Mobilities 1 143-165 Jones E, 1960, A Social Geography of Belfast (Oxford University Press, Oxford) Katyal NK, 2002, "Architecture as crime control" Yale Law Journal 1039-1139 Kendall G and Wickham G, 2000, Using Foucault's Methods (Sage publications, London) Kitson F, 1972, Low Intensity Operations (Faber, London) Kitson F, 1977, Bunch of Five (Faber, London) Kraay JH, 1986, "Woonerf and other experiments in the Netherlands" Built Environment 12 20-29 Lundy P, 2009, "Can the Past Be Policed: Lessons from the Historical Enquiries Team Northern Ireland" Law and Social Challenges 11 109 Mann M, 1984, "The autonomous power of the state: its origins, mechanisms and results" European journal of sociology 25 185-213 Mann M, 2006, "The sources of social power revisited: a response to criticism", in An Anatomy of Power: The Social Theory of Michael Mann, Eds J Hall and R Schroeder (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)343-396 Mann M, 2012, The Sources of Social Power: Volume 3, Global Empires and Revolution, 1890-1945 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom) Mann M and Haugaard M, 2011, "Reflections on the sources of power" Journal of Political Power 4 169-178 Manning J, 2004, "Racism in three dimensions: South African architecture and the ideology of white superiority" Social identities 10 527-536 McAleese D, 2011, "Loyalist murals return to east Belfast, and few welcome them" Belfast Telegraph 2014, 10/23 http://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/local-national/northern-ireland/loyalist-murals-return-to-east-belfast-and-few-welcome-them-28616810.html McGovern M, 2013, "Inquiring into collusion? Collusion, the state and the management of truth recovery In Northern Ireland" State Crime Journal 2 4-29 Mitchell D, 2003, "Cultural landscapes: just landscapes or landscapes of justice?" Progress in Human Geography 27 787-796 Monaghan R and Shirlow P, 2011, "Forward to the past? Loyalist paramilitarism in Northern Ireland since 1994" Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 34 649-665 Neill WJ, 2006, "Return to Titanic and lost in the Maze: the search for representation of ‘post-conflict’ Belfast" Space and Polity 10 109-120 Newman O, 1972, Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City (Architectural Press, London) Newman O, 1976, Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space (National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, Washington, DC) Office of First Minister and deputy First Minister of the Northern Ireland Executive, 2013, Together: Building a United Community Strategy (OFMDFM, Belfast) Owen D, 2013, Maturity and Modernity: Nietzsche, Weber, Foucault and the Ambivalence of Reason (Routledge, London and New York) Piquard B and Swenarton M, 2011, "Learning from Architecture and Conflict" The Journal of Architecture 16 1-13 Power A, Willmot H and Davidson R, 2011, Family Futures: Childhood and Poverty in Urban Neighbourhoods (Policy Press, Bristol) Rabinow P and Foucault M, 1984, "Space, Knowledge and Power", in The Foucault Reader, Ed P Rabinow (Pantheon, New York) Robinson F and Shaw K, 1994, "Urban policy under the conservatives: In search of the big idea?" Local Economy 9 224-235 Sassen S, 2010, "When the city itself becomes a technology of war" Theory, Culture & Society 27 33-50 Sheller M, 2004, "Automotive emotions feeling the car" Theory, culture & society 21 221-242 Sheller M and Urry J, 2000, "The city and the car" International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 24 737-757 Sheller M and Urry J, 2003, "Mobile transformations of public and private life" Theory, Culture & Society 20 107-125 Shirlow P, 2006, "Belfast: the ‘post-conflict’city" Space and Polity 10 99-107 Shirlow P and Murtagh B, 2006, Belfast: Segregation, Violence and the City (Pluto Press, London) Singleton D, 1984, The Belfast Experience: Housing Renewal in Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland Housing Executive, Belfast) Smith DM, 2003, The Apartheid City and Beyond: Urbanization and Social Change in South Africa (Routledge, London) Smith RW and Bugni V, 2006, "Symbolic interaction theory and architecture" Symbolic interaction 29 123-155 Weizman E, 2010, "Legislative Attack" Theory, Culture & Society 27 11-22 Wiener R, 1976, The Rape and Plunder of the Shankill in Belfast: People and Planning (Nothems Press, Belfast) Wylie D, 2007, British Watchtowers (Steidl, Göttingen) Yiftachel O, 1994, "The dark side of modernism: planning as control of an ethnic minority" Postmodern cities and spaces 216-242 Yiftachel O, 1998, "Planning and social control: Exploring the dark side" Journal of Planning Literature 12 395-406 Yiftachel O and Yacobi H, 2003, "Urban ethnocracy: ethnicization and the production of space in an Israeli mixed city'" Environment and Planning D 21 673-694

PY - 2017/5/5

Y1 - 2017/5/5

N2 - The ‘peace-walls’ of Belfast represent a widely acknowledged architectural legacy of the Troubles, the period between 1969 and 1994 when sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland was most extreme. This paper reveals a further crucial but unacknowledged architectural legacy. It is a Hidden City of unassuming inner-city architecture where everyday pervasiveness masks a capacity to perpetuate conflict-era forces in a post-conflict city. The first half of the paper presents a Foucauldian analysis of declassified government documents revealing the knowledge created through undisclosed systems of power-relations. Here a problematization of accepted norms reassesses the Troubles-era urban landscape and exposes the latent significance of its socio-material complexity. The second half of the paper illustrates the material consequences of related hidden policy practices on the contemporary post-conflict community. It borrows from Goffman to offer an exposition of the institutionalisation of movement and meaning at play in the Hidden City. A triangulation of interviews, photography and architectural fieldwork is used to theorise the Material Event, a construction of meaning derived from the interaction between people, architecture and the wider systems of power-relations. The paper concludes by demonstrating the complexity of the systemic challenges posed by the Material Events and how these help constrain conflict-transformation practices.

AB - The ‘peace-walls’ of Belfast represent a widely acknowledged architectural legacy of the Troubles, the period between 1969 and 1994 when sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland was most extreme. This paper reveals a further crucial but unacknowledged architectural legacy. It is a Hidden City of unassuming inner-city architecture where everyday pervasiveness masks a capacity to perpetuate conflict-era forces in a post-conflict city. The first half of the paper presents a Foucauldian analysis of declassified government documents revealing the knowledge created through undisclosed systems of power-relations. Here a problematization of accepted norms reassesses the Troubles-era urban landscape and exposes the latent significance of its socio-material complexity. The second half of the paper illustrates the material consequences of related hidden policy practices on the contemporary post-conflict community. It borrows from Goffman to offer an exposition of the institutionalisation of movement and meaning at play in the Hidden City. A triangulation of interviews, photography and architectural fieldwork is used to theorise the Material Event, a construction of meaning derived from the interaction between people, architecture and the wider systems of power-relations. The paper concludes by demonstrating the complexity of the systemic challenges posed by the Material Events and how these help constrain conflict-transformation practices.

KW - Architecture

KW - Conflict

KW - Foucault

KW - Belfast

KW - The Troubles

KW - Security.

U2 - 10.1177/0263775817707528

DO - 10.1177/0263775817707528

M3 - Article

VL - TBC

SP - TBC-TBC

JO - Environment and Planning D: Society and Space

T2 - Environment and Planning D: Society and Space

JF - Environment and Planning D: Society and Space

SN - 0263-7758

ER -