Investigation of thermal degradation of pine needles using multi-step reaction mechanisms

S Benkorichi, T Fateh, F Richard, J-L Consalvi, A Nadjai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The objective of this study is to assess the relevance of several multi-step reaction mechanisms to describe the mass loss and the mass loss rate of pine needles in TGA at different heating rates in inert and oxidative atmospheres. The kinetic parameters of the different reactions were optimized using the Shuffled complex evolution (SCE) technique. Model results show that both mass loss and mass loss rate should be considered in order to evaluate properly the mechanism. The drying process is described accurately by a single reaction with a well-established set of kinetic parameters. The conversion of dry pine into char requires a five-step reaction mechanism that is combined of three reactions to describe the pyrolysis under inert atmosphere and another two reactions to describe the oxidative process. Less detailed mechanisms were found to be unable to reproduce the mass loss rate. In particular, the one-step reaction mechanism, widely used to model the pyrolysis process in wildland fire simulations, should be used with care. Finally, the char oxidation process can be described with a single step-reaction mechanism. The final complex mechanism is comprised of one reaction for drying, five reactions for the conversion of dry pine into char, and one reaction for the char oxidation, is promising. Further studies are required for its validation in large-scale experiments.
LanguageEnglish
Pages811-819
JournalFire Safety Journal
Volume91
Early online date12 Apr 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017

Fingerprint

thermal degradation
needles
Needles
Pyrolysis
Kinetic parameters
Drying
Oxidation
inert atmosphere
Heating rate
drying
Fires
pyrolysis
oxidation
kinetics
Experiments
atmospheres

Keywords

  • Forest fires
  • Pine needles
  • Gpyro
  • Thermal degradation
  • Thermogravimetric analysis
  • Shuffled complex evolution (SCE)
  • Multi-step reaction mechanism

Cite this

Benkorichi, S ; Fateh, T ; Richard, F ; Consalvi, J-L ; Nadjai, A. / Investigation of thermal degradation of pine needles using multi-step reaction mechanisms. In: Fire Safety Journal. 2017 ; Vol. 91. pp. 811-819.
@article{25f2ec39f87f427db946c8aa95d4e45e,
title = "Investigation of thermal degradation of pine needles using multi-step reaction mechanisms",
abstract = "The objective of this study is to assess the relevance of several multi-step reaction mechanisms to describe the mass loss and the mass loss rate of pine needles in TGA at different heating rates in inert and oxidative atmospheres. The kinetic parameters of the different reactions were optimized using the Shuffled complex evolution (SCE) technique. Model results show that both mass loss and mass loss rate should be considered in order to evaluate properly the mechanism. The drying process is described accurately by a single reaction with a well-established set of kinetic parameters. The conversion of dry pine into char requires a five-step reaction mechanism that is combined of three reactions to describe the pyrolysis under inert atmosphere and another two reactions to describe the oxidative process. Less detailed mechanisms were found to be unable to reproduce the mass loss rate. In particular, the one-step reaction mechanism, widely used to model the pyrolysis process in wildland fire simulations, should be used with care. Finally, the char oxidation process can be described with a single step-reaction mechanism. The final complex mechanism is comprised of one reaction for drying, five reactions for the conversion of dry pine into char, and one reaction for the char oxidation, is promising. Further studies are required for its validation in large-scale experiments.",
keywords = "Forest fires, Pine needles, Gpyro, Thermal degradation, Thermogravimetric analysis, Shuffled complex evolution (SCE), Multi-step reaction mechanism",
author = "S Benkorichi and T Fateh and F Richard and J-L Consalvi and A Nadjai",
note = "Reference text: [1] Alexandrian, D., Esnault, F., Calabri, G. (1998) Forest fires in the Mediterranean area, “FAO meeting on Public Policies Affecting Forest Fires”. Rome Italy. Rome, 28 -30 October. 39 -58. [2] Wei Min, H., Narasimhan K.L. (2014) Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States, Forest Ecology and Management 317:20–25, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.09.029. [3] Guillaume, O. S{\'e}ro., Margerit, J. (2002) Modelling forest fires. Part I: a complete set of equations derived by extended irreversible thermodynamics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45:1705-1722, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0017-9310(01)00248-4. [4] Weber, R.O. (1991) Toward a comprehensive wildfire spread model, Int. J, Wildland Fire 1:245–248, http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/wf9910245. [5] Grishin, A.M. (1997) Mathematical Modeling of Forest Fires and New Methods of Fighting Them, Translated from Russian by M. Czuma, L. Chikina, and L. Smokotina, University of Tomsk, Russia. [6] Grishin, A.M., Zverev, V., Larini, M., Giroud, F., Porterie, B., Loraud, J.C. (1998) A multiphase formulation for fire propagation in heterogeneous combustible media, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 41:881-897, doi:10.1016/S0017-9310(97)00173-7. [7] Porterie, B., Consalvi J.L., Loraud, J.C., Giroud, F., Picard, C, Dynamics of wildland fires and their impact on structures, Combustion and Flame 149: 314-328, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2006.12.017. [8] Morvan, D., Dupuy, J.L. (2001) Modeling of fire spread through a forest fuel bed using a multiphase formulation, Combustion and Flame 127:1981-1994, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-2180(01)00302-9. [9] Morvan, D., M{\'e}radji, Accary, S, G. (2009) Physical modelling of fire spread in Grasslands, Fire Safety Journal 44: 50-61, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2008.03.004. [10] Dominique, M. (2015) Numerical study of the behaviour of a surface fire propagating through a firebreak built in a Mediterranean shrub layer, Fire Safety Journal 71:34-48, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2014.11.012. [11] Zhoua, X., Mahalingam, S., Weise, D. (2005) Modeling of marginal burning state of fire spread in live chaparral shrub fuel bed, Combustion and Flame 143:183-198, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2005.05.013. [12] Mell, W., Maranghides, A., McDermott, R., Manzello, S.L. (2009) Numerical simulation and experiments of burning Douglas fir trees, Combustion and Flame 156:2023–2041. [13] Linn, R., Reisner, J., Colman, J., Winterkamp, J. (2002) Studying wildfire behavior using FIRETEC, International Journal Wildland Fires 11:233–246. [14] Leroy-Cancellieri, V., Cancellieri, D., Leoni, E., Rossi, J.L. (2010) Kinetic study of forest fuels by TGA: Model-free kinetic approach for the prediction of phenomena, Thermochimica Acta 497:1–6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2009.08.001. [15] Safi, M.J., Mishra, I.M., Prasad, B. (2004). Global degradation kinetics of pine needles in air. Thermochimica Acta 412:155–162, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2003.09.017. [16] Cancellieri, D., Innocenti, E., Leroy-Cancellieri. (2013): WinGPYRO: WinGPYRO: A software platform for kinetic study of forest fuels, Fire Safety Journal 58:103-111, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2013.01.005. [17] Font, R., Conesa, J.A., Molto, J., Munoz, M. (2009) Kinetics of pyrolysis and combustion of pine needles and cones, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 85:276–286, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2008.11.015. [18] Fateh, T., F. Richard, Zaida, J., Rogaume, T. (2016) Multi-scale experimental investigations of the thermal degradation of pine needles, Fire And Materials Journal, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fam.2407. [19] Houssamia, M.El, Thomas, J.C., Lamorlette, A., Morvanb, D., Chaos, M., Haddena, R., Simeoni, A. (2016) Experimental and numerical studies characterizing the burning dynamics of wildland fuels, Combustion and Flame 168:113–126, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.04.004. [20] Consalvi, J.L., Nmira, F., Fuentes, A., Mindykowski, P., Porterie B., (2011) Numerical study of piloted ignition of forest fuel layer, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 33: 2641-2648, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2010.06.025. [21] Ding, Y., Wang, C., Chaos, M., Chen, R., Lu, S. (2016) Estimation of beech pyrolysis kinetic parameters by Shuffled Complex Evolution, Bioresource Technology 200:658–665, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.082. [22] Reeves, C.R., Rowe, J.E. (2002) Genetic algorithms principles and perspective, Computer Science Interfaces Series 20:1-340. [23] Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C. (2006) The application of a Genetic algorithm to estimate material properties for fire modeling from bench scale Fire test data, Fire Safety Journal 41:204-214, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2005.12.004. [24] Rein, G., Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C., Torero, J., Urban, D. (2006) Application of genetic algorithms and thermogravimetry to determine the kinetics of polyurethane foam in smoldering combustion, Combustion and Flame 146:95-108, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2006.04.013. [25] Matala, A. (2008) Estimation of solid phase reaction parameters for fire simulation, A dissertation for the degree of master of science in technology in the degree program in engineering physics, University of Technology, Helsinki. [26] Matala, A., Hostikka, S., Mangs, J. (2008) Estimation of pyrolysis model parameters for solid materials using thermogravimetric data. Fire Safety Science 9:1213-1223, doi:10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.9-1213. [27] Niu, H., Liu N. (2015) Thermal decomposition of pine branch: Unified kinetic model on pyrolytic reactions in pyrolysis and combustion, Fuel 160: 339-345. [28] Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C. (2011) Optimization Algorithms for Material Pyrolysis Property Estimation. Fire Safety Science 10: 751-764. 10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.10-751. [29] Lautenberger, C. (2007) A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids (PhD. thesis) University of California, Berkeley. [30] Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C. (2009) A model for the oxidative pyrolysis of wood, Combustion and Flame 156:1503-1513, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.04.001 [31] Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C. (2009) Generalized pyrolysis model for combustible solids, Fire Safety Journal 44:819-839, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2009.03.011 [32] Lautenberger, C. (2014) Gpyro – A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids (Users’ Guide, Version 0.800). Berkeley, California, USA: Chris Lautenberger, Reax Engineering Inc. 1921 University Ave Berkeley, CA 94704. [33] Lautenberger, C. (2014) Gpyro – A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids (Technical Reference, Version 0.800). Berkeley, California, USA: Chris Lautenberger, Reax Engineering Inc. 1921 University Ave Berkeley, CA 94704. [34] Fateh, T., Rogaume, T., Richard, F. (2014) Multi-scale modeling of the thermal decomposition of fire retardant plywood, Fire Safety Journal 64: 36-47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2014.01.007.",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.058",
language = "English",
volume = "91",
pages = "811--819",
journal = "Fire Safety Journal",
issn = "0379-7112",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Investigation of thermal degradation of pine needles using multi-step reaction mechanisms. / Benkorichi, S; Fateh, T; Richard, F; Consalvi, J-L; Nadjai, A.

In: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 91, 07.2017, p. 811-819.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Investigation of thermal degradation of pine needles using multi-step reaction mechanisms

AU - Benkorichi, S

AU - Fateh, T

AU - Richard, F

AU - Consalvi, J-L

AU - Nadjai, A

N1 - Reference text: [1] Alexandrian, D., Esnault, F., Calabri, G. (1998) Forest fires in the Mediterranean area, “FAO meeting on Public Policies Affecting Forest Fires”. Rome Italy. Rome, 28 -30 October. 39 -58. [2] Wei Min, H., Narasimhan K.L. (2014) Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States, Forest Ecology and Management 317:20–25, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.09.029. [3] Guillaume, O. Séro., Margerit, J. (2002) Modelling forest fires. Part I: a complete set of equations derived by extended irreversible thermodynamics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 45:1705-1722, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0017-9310(01)00248-4. [4] Weber, R.O. (1991) Toward a comprehensive wildfire spread model, Int. J, Wildland Fire 1:245–248, http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/wf9910245. [5] Grishin, A.M. (1997) Mathematical Modeling of Forest Fires and New Methods of Fighting Them, Translated from Russian by M. Czuma, L. Chikina, and L. Smokotina, University of Tomsk, Russia. [6] Grishin, A.M., Zverev, V., Larini, M., Giroud, F., Porterie, B., Loraud, J.C. (1998) A multiphase formulation for fire propagation in heterogeneous combustible media, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 41:881-897, doi:10.1016/S0017-9310(97)00173-7. [7] Porterie, B., Consalvi J.L., Loraud, J.C., Giroud, F., Picard, C, Dynamics of wildland fires and their impact on structures, Combustion and Flame 149: 314-328, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2006.12.017. [8] Morvan, D., Dupuy, J.L. (2001) Modeling of fire spread through a forest fuel bed using a multiphase formulation, Combustion and Flame 127:1981-1994, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0010-2180(01)00302-9. [9] Morvan, D., Méradji, Accary, S, G. (2009) Physical modelling of fire spread in Grasslands, Fire Safety Journal 44: 50-61, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2008.03.004. [10] Dominique, M. (2015) Numerical study of the behaviour of a surface fire propagating through a firebreak built in a Mediterranean shrub layer, Fire Safety Journal 71:34-48, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2014.11.012. [11] Zhoua, X., Mahalingam, S., Weise, D. (2005) Modeling of marginal burning state of fire spread in live chaparral shrub fuel bed, Combustion and Flame 143:183-198, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2005.05.013. [12] Mell, W., Maranghides, A., McDermott, R., Manzello, S.L. (2009) Numerical simulation and experiments of burning Douglas fir trees, Combustion and Flame 156:2023–2041. [13] Linn, R., Reisner, J., Colman, J., Winterkamp, J. (2002) Studying wildfire behavior using FIRETEC, International Journal Wildland Fires 11:233–246. [14] Leroy-Cancellieri, V., Cancellieri, D., Leoni, E., Rossi, J.L. (2010) Kinetic study of forest fuels by TGA: Model-free kinetic approach for the prediction of phenomena, Thermochimica Acta 497:1–6, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2009.08.001. [15] Safi, M.J., Mishra, I.M., Prasad, B. (2004). Global degradation kinetics of pine needles in air. Thermochimica Acta 412:155–162, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2003.09.017. [16] Cancellieri, D., Innocenti, E., Leroy-Cancellieri. (2013): WinGPYRO: WinGPYRO: A software platform for kinetic study of forest fuels, Fire Safety Journal 58:103-111, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2013.01.005. [17] Font, R., Conesa, J.A., Molto, J., Munoz, M. (2009) Kinetics of pyrolysis and combustion of pine needles and cones, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 85:276–286, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2008.11.015. [18] Fateh, T., F. Richard, Zaida, J., Rogaume, T. (2016) Multi-scale experimental investigations of the thermal degradation of pine needles, Fire And Materials Journal, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fam.2407. [19] Houssamia, M.El, Thomas, J.C., Lamorlette, A., Morvanb, D., Chaos, M., Haddena, R., Simeoni, A. (2016) Experimental and numerical studies characterizing the burning dynamics of wildland fuels, Combustion and Flame 168:113–126, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2016.04.004. [20] Consalvi, J.L., Nmira, F., Fuentes, A., Mindykowski, P., Porterie B., (2011) Numerical study of piloted ignition of forest fuel layer, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 33: 2641-2648, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2010.06.025. [21] Ding, Y., Wang, C., Chaos, M., Chen, R., Lu, S. (2016) Estimation of beech pyrolysis kinetic parameters by Shuffled Complex Evolution, Bioresource Technology 200:658–665, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.082. [22] Reeves, C.R., Rowe, J.E. (2002) Genetic algorithms principles and perspective, Computer Science Interfaces Series 20:1-340. [23] Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C. (2006) The application of a Genetic algorithm to estimate material properties for fire modeling from bench scale Fire test data, Fire Safety Journal 41:204-214, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2005.12.004. [24] Rein, G., Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C., Torero, J., Urban, D. (2006) Application of genetic algorithms and thermogravimetry to determine the kinetics of polyurethane foam in smoldering combustion, Combustion and Flame 146:95-108, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2006.04.013. [25] Matala, A. (2008) Estimation of solid phase reaction parameters for fire simulation, A dissertation for the degree of master of science in technology in the degree program in engineering physics, University of Technology, Helsinki. [26] Matala, A., Hostikka, S., Mangs, J. (2008) Estimation of pyrolysis model parameters for solid materials using thermogravimetric data. Fire Safety Science 9:1213-1223, doi:10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.9-1213. [27] Niu, H., Liu N. (2015) Thermal decomposition of pine branch: Unified kinetic model on pyrolytic reactions in pyrolysis and combustion, Fuel 160: 339-345. [28] Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C. (2011) Optimization Algorithms for Material Pyrolysis Property Estimation. Fire Safety Science 10: 751-764. 10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.10-751. [29] Lautenberger, C. (2007) A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids (PhD. thesis) University of California, Berkeley. [30] Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C. (2009) A model for the oxidative pyrolysis of wood, Combustion and Flame 156:1503-1513, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.04.001 [31] Lautenberger, C., Fernandez-Pello, C. (2009) Generalized pyrolysis model for combustible solids, Fire Safety Journal 44:819-839, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2009.03.011 [32] Lautenberger, C. (2014) Gpyro – A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids (Users’ Guide, Version 0.800). Berkeley, California, USA: Chris Lautenberger, Reax Engineering Inc. 1921 University Ave Berkeley, CA 94704. [33] Lautenberger, C. (2014) Gpyro – A Generalized Pyrolysis Model for Combustible Solids (Technical Reference, Version 0.800). Berkeley, California, USA: Chris Lautenberger, Reax Engineering Inc. 1921 University Ave Berkeley, CA 94704. [34] Fateh, T., Rogaume, T., Richard, F. (2014) Multi-scale modeling of the thermal decomposition of fire retardant plywood, Fire Safety Journal 64: 36-47, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2014.01.007.

PY - 2017/7

Y1 - 2017/7

N2 - The objective of this study is to assess the relevance of several multi-step reaction mechanisms to describe the mass loss and the mass loss rate of pine needles in TGA at different heating rates in inert and oxidative atmospheres. The kinetic parameters of the different reactions were optimized using the Shuffled complex evolution (SCE) technique. Model results show that both mass loss and mass loss rate should be considered in order to evaluate properly the mechanism. The drying process is described accurately by a single reaction with a well-established set of kinetic parameters. The conversion of dry pine into char requires a five-step reaction mechanism that is combined of three reactions to describe the pyrolysis under inert atmosphere and another two reactions to describe the oxidative process. Less detailed mechanisms were found to be unable to reproduce the mass loss rate. In particular, the one-step reaction mechanism, widely used to model the pyrolysis process in wildland fire simulations, should be used with care. Finally, the char oxidation process can be described with a single step-reaction mechanism. The final complex mechanism is comprised of one reaction for drying, five reactions for the conversion of dry pine into char, and one reaction for the char oxidation, is promising. Further studies are required for its validation in large-scale experiments.

AB - The objective of this study is to assess the relevance of several multi-step reaction mechanisms to describe the mass loss and the mass loss rate of pine needles in TGA at different heating rates in inert and oxidative atmospheres. The kinetic parameters of the different reactions were optimized using the Shuffled complex evolution (SCE) technique. Model results show that both mass loss and mass loss rate should be considered in order to evaluate properly the mechanism. The drying process is described accurately by a single reaction with a well-established set of kinetic parameters. The conversion of dry pine into char requires a five-step reaction mechanism that is combined of three reactions to describe the pyrolysis under inert atmosphere and another two reactions to describe the oxidative process. Less detailed mechanisms were found to be unable to reproduce the mass loss rate. In particular, the one-step reaction mechanism, widely used to model the pyrolysis process in wildland fire simulations, should be used with care. Finally, the char oxidation process can be described with a single step-reaction mechanism. The final complex mechanism is comprised of one reaction for drying, five reactions for the conversion of dry pine into char, and one reaction for the char oxidation, is promising. Further studies are required for its validation in large-scale experiments.

KW - Forest fires

KW - Pine needles

KW - Gpyro

KW - Thermal degradation

KW - Thermogravimetric analysis

KW - Shuffled complex evolution (SCE)

KW - Multi-step reaction mechanism

U2 - 10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.058

DO - 10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.058

M3 - Article

VL - 91

SP - 811

EP - 819

JO - Fire Safety Journal

T2 - Fire Safety Journal

JF - Fire Safety Journal

SN - 0379-7112

ER -