Investigation of the electrochemical oxidation of clenbuterol at a porous carbon electrode, and its application to the determination of this beta-agonist in bovine hair by liquid chromatography with coulometric detection

GJ McGrath, E O'Kane, Franklin Smyth, F Tagliaro

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    At pH 5, clenbuterol is oxidized at potentials > 650 mV to form a radical cation, two of which combine in a head to head manner to form a dimer. A method for the determination of this notably abused beta(2)-adrenergic drug in bovine hair has been developed, utilizing this oxidative response. After alkaline degradation of the hair, the drug was extracted using a simple liquid-liquid extraction based on hexane, with a recovery of 92 +/- 3.6%. After evaporation to dryness, the residue is dissolved in mobile phase and the drug analysed by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-0.1 M ammonium acetate (60:40, v/v) with 0.4% sodium dodecyl sulphate adjusted to pH 5 with orthophosphoric acid. Quantitation used a two cell coulometric detector with the first cell being used as a screening electrode and the analytical electrode set at +875 mV.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages159-166
    JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
    Volume322
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 1996

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    Clenbuterol
    Electrochemical oxidation
    Liquid chromatography
    Carbon
    Electrodes
    Liquids
    Hexanes
    Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
    Pharmaceutical Preparations
    Dimers
    Adrenergic Agents
    Methanol
    Cations
    Screening
    Evaporation
    Detectors
    Recovery
    Degradation
    phosphoric acid
    ammonium acetate

    Cite this

    @article{e1197b7b0caf42099e0e0a40470d253b,
    title = "Investigation of the electrochemical oxidation of clenbuterol at a porous carbon electrode, and its application to the determination of this beta-agonist in bovine hair by liquid chromatography with coulometric detection",
    abstract = "At pH 5, clenbuterol is oxidized at potentials > 650 mV to form a radical cation, two of which combine in a head to head manner to form a dimer. A method for the determination of this notably abused beta(2)-adrenergic drug in bovine hair has been developed, utilizing this oxidative response. After alkaline degradation of the hair, the drug was extracted using a simple liquid-liquid extraction based on hexane, with a recovery of 92 +/- 3.6{\%}. After evaporation to dryness, the residue is dissolved in mobile phase and the drug analysed by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-0.1 M ammonium acetate (60:40, v/v) with 0.4{\%} sodium dodecyl sulphate adjusted to pH 5 with orthophosphoric acid. Quantitation used a two cell coulometric detector with the first cell being used as a screening electrode and the analytical electrode set at +875 mV.",
    author = "GJ McGrath and E O'Kane and Franklin Smyth and F Tagliaro",
    year = "1996",
    month = "4",
    language = "English",
    volume = "322",
    pages = "159--166",
    journal = "Analytica Chimica Acta",
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    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "3",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Investigation of the electrochemical oxidation of clenbuterol at a porous carbon electrode, and its application to the determination of this beta-agonist in bovine hair by liquid chromatography with coulometric detection

    AU - McGrath, GJ

    AU - O'Kane, E

    AU - Smyth, Franklin

    AU - Tagliaro, F

    PY - 1996/4

    Y1 - 1996/4

    N2 - At pH 5, clenbuterol is oxidized at potentials > 650 mV to form a radical cation, two of which combine in a head to head manner to form a dimer. A method for the determination of this notably abused beta(2)-adrenergic drug in bovine hair has been developed, utilizing this oxidative response. After alkaline degradation of the hair, the drug was extracted using a simple liquid-liquid extraction based on hexane, with a recovery of 92 +/- 3.6%. After evaporation to dryness, the residue is dissolved in mobile phase and the drug analysed by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-0.1 M ammonium acetate (60:40, v/v) with 0.4% sodium dodecyl sulphate adjusted to pH 5 with orthophosphoric acid. Quantitation used a two cell coulometric detector with the first cell being used as a screening electrode and the analytical electrode set at +875 mV.

    AB - At pH 5, clenbuterol is oxidized at potentials > 650 mV to form a radical cation, two of which combine in a head to head manner to form a dimer. A method for the determination of this notably abused beta(2)-adrenergic drug in bovine hair has been developed, utilizing this oxidative response. After alkaline degradation of the hair, the drug was extracted using a simple liquid-liquid extraction based on hexane, with a recovery of 92 +/- 3.6%. After evaporation to dryness, the residue is dissolved in mobile phase and the drug analysed by reversed phase liquid chromatography using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-0.1 M ammonium acetate (60:40, v/v) with 0.4% sodium dodecyl sulphate adjusted to pH 5 with orthophosphoric acid. Quantitation used a two cell coulometric detector with the first cell being used as a screening electrode and the analytical electrode set at +875 mV.

    M3 - Article

    VL - 322

    SP - 159

    EP - 166

    JO - Analytica Chimica Acta

    T2 - Analytica Chimica Acta

    JF - Analytica Chimica Acta

    SN - 0003-2670

    IS - 3

    ER -