Investigation of the effect of inorganic smart fillers and expanded graphite on the flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate insulation foam

Eleni Asimakopoulou, Jianping Zhang, Maurice McKee, Kinga Wieczorek, Anna Krawczyk, Michele Andolfo, Marco Scatto, Michele Sisani, Maria Bastianini

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Use of highly insulating polyisocyanurate (PIR) based insulation materials enhanced with eco-friendly lamellar inorganic fillers contributes to meeting energy performance requirements, environmental challenges and cost reduction without undue compromise of the overall building fire safety. This work aims to assess the fire behaviour of PIR foams enhanced with lamellar inorganic smart fillers, namely Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs), Expandable Graphite (EG) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP). The morphology of the foam structure was firstly studied using Optical Microscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and subsequently the fire reaction properties and thermal stability of foam samples enhanced with different types of lamellar inorganic smart fillers were evaluated using cone calorimeter (CC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results indicated that thermal decomposition of the neat PIR samples occurs in two distinct stages associated with the degradation of the urethane-urea linkages of the hard segment, releasing low calorific capacity products and the degradation of polyol derived products with higher calorific capacity than those derived from isocyanate. The initial degradation temperature of PIR-layered filler samples decreases compared with neat PIR foam, indicating that incorporation of flame retardants decelerates the degradation of PIR foam and as a result decreases the thermal stability of PIR foam. The cone calorimeter data showed that the effects of LDH alone has limited effect on reducing the heat release rate (HRR) or smoke production rate (SPR) as it is only act in the solid phase. With the addition of EG or EG+APP, HRR is further decreased owing to the increased char strength as well as the release of non-combustible gases, and simultaneously effectively suppress smoke and gases during the combustion process.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings 9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
EventInternational Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, - Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation
Duration: 21 Apr 201926 Apr 2019
Conference number: 9
https://isfeh9.org/

Conference

ConferenceInternational Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards,
CountryRussian Federation
CitySaint-Petersburg
Period21/04/1926/04/19
Internet address

Fingerprint

Graphite
Foams
Fillers
Insulation
Hydroxides
Degradation
Fires
Polyphosphates
Calorimeters
Smoke
Thermogravimetric analysis
Cones
Ammonium Compounds
Thermodynamic stability
Gases
Flame Retardants
Polyols
Isocyanates
Flame retardants
Cost reduction

Keywords

  • polyisocyanurate insulation
  • layer doubled hydroxides
  • expanded graphite
  • ammonium polyphosphate
  • fire performance
  • thermogravimetric analysis
  • cone calorimeter analysis

Cite this

Asimakopoulou, E., Zhang, J., McKee, M., Wieczorek, K., Krawczyk, A., Andolfo, M., ... Bastianini, M. (2019). Investigation of the effect of inorganic smart fillers and expanded graphite on the flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate insulation foam. In Proceedings 9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards https://doi.org/10.18720/SPBPU/2/k19-40
Asimakopoulou, Eleni ; Zhang, Jianping ; McKee, Maurice ; Wieczorek, Kinga ; Krawczyk, Anna ; Andolfo, Michele ; Scatto, Marco ; Sisani, Michele ; Bastianini, Maria. / Investigation of the effect of inorganic smart fillers and expanded graphite on the flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate insulation foam. Proceedings 9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards. 2019.
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title = "Investigation of the effect of inorganic smart fillers and expanded graphite on the flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate insulation foam",
abstract = "Use of highly insulating polyisocyanurate (PIR) based insulation materials enhanced with eco-friendly lamellar inorganic fillers contributes to meeting energy performance requirements, environmental challenges and cost reduction without undue compromise of the overall building fire safety. This work aims to assess the fire behaviour of PIR foams enhanced with lamellar inorganic smart fillers, namely Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs), Expandable Graphite (EG) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP). The morphology of the foam structure was firstly studied using Optical Microscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and subsequently the fire reaction properties and thermal stability of foam samples enhanced with different types of lamellar inorganic smart fillers were evaluated using cone calorimeter (CC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results indicated that thermal decomposition of the neat PIR samples occurs in two distinct stages associated with the degradation of the urethane-urea linkages of the hard segment, releasing low calorific capacity products and the degradation of polyol derived products with higher calorific capacity than those derived from isocyanate. The initial degradation temperature of PIR-layered filler samples decreases compared with neat PIR foam, indicating that incorporation of flame retardants decelerates the degradation of PIR foam and as a result decreases the thermal stability of PIR foam. The cone calorimeter data showed that the effects of LDH alone has limited effect on reducing the heat release rate (HRR) or smoke production rate (SPR) as it is only act in the solid phase. With the addition of EG or EG+APP, HRR is further decreased owing to the increased char strength as well as the release of non-combustible gases, and simultaneously effectively suppress smoke and gases during the combustion process.",
keywords = "polyisocyanurate insulation, layer doubled hydroxides, expanded graphite, ammonium polyphosphate, fire performance, thermogravimetric analysis, cone calorimeter analysis",
author = "Eleni Asimakopoulou and Jianping Zhang and Maurice McKee and Kinga Wieczorek and Anna Krawczyk and Michele Andolfo and Marco Scatto and Michele Sisani and Maria Bastianini",
year = "2019",
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Asimakopoulou, E, Zhang, J, McKee, M, Wieczorek, K, Krawczyk, A, Andolfo, M, Scatto, M, Sisani, M & Bastianini, M 2019, Investigation of the effect of inorganic smart fillers and expanded graphite on the flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate insulation foam. in Proceedings 9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards. International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation, 21/04/19. https://doi.org/10.18720/SPBPU/2/k19-40

Investigation of the effect of inorganic smart fillers and expanded graphite on the flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate insulation foam. / Asimakopoulou, Eleni; Zhang, Jianping; McKee, Maurice; Wieczorek, Kinga; Krawczyk, Anna; Andolfo, Michele; Scatto, Marco; Sisani, Michele; Bastianini, Maria.

Proceedings 9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards. 2019.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Investigation of the effect of inorganic smart fillers and expanded graphite on the flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate insulation foam

AU - Asimakopoulou, Eleni

AU - Zhang, Jianping

AU - McKee, Maurice

AU - Wieczorek, Kinga

AU - Krawczyk, Anna

AU - Andolfo, Michele

AU - Scatto, Marco

AU - Sisani, Michele

AU - Bastianini, Maria

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Use of highly insulating polyisocyanurate (PIR) based insulation materials enhanced with eco-friendly lamellar inorganic fillers contributes to meeting energy performance requirements, environmental challenges and cost reduction without undue compromise of the overall building fire safety. This work aims to assess the fire behaviour of PIR foams enhanced with lamellar inorganic smart fillers, namely Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs), Expandable Graphite (EG) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP). The morphology of the foam structure was firstly studied using Optical Microscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and subsequently the fire reaction properties and thermal stability of foam samples enhanced with different types of lamellar inorganic smart fillers were evaluated using cone calorimeter (CC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results indicated that thermal decomposition of the neat PIR samples occurs in two distinct stages associated with the degradation of the urethane-urea linkages of the hard segment, releasing low calorific capacity products and the degradation of polyol derived products with higher calorific capacity than those derived from isocyanate. The initial degradation temperature of PIR-layered filler samples decreases compared with neat PIR foam, indicating that incorporation of flame retardants decelerates the degradation of PIR foam and as a result decreases the thermal stability of PIR foam. The cone calorimeter data showed that the effects of LDH alone has limited effect on reducing the heat release rate (HRR) or smoke production rate (SPR) as it is only act in the solid phase. With the addition of EG or EG+APP, HRR is further decreased owing to the increased char strength as well as the release of non-combustible gases, and simultaneously effectively suppress smoke and gases during the combustion process.

AB - Use of highly insulating polyisocyanurate (PIR) based insulation materials enhanced with eco-friendly lamellar inorganic fillers contributes to meeting energy performance requirements, environmental challenges and cost reduction without undue compromise of the overall building fire safety. This work aims to assess the fire behaviour of PIR foams enhanced with lamellar inorganic smart fillers, namely Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs), Expandable Graphite (EG) and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP). The morphology of the foam structure was firstly studied using Optical Microscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and subsequently the fire reaction properties and thermal stability of foam samples enhanced with different types of lamellar inorganic smart fillers were evaluated using cone calorimeter (CC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results indicated that thermal decomposition of the neat PIR samples occurs in two distinct stages associated with the degradation of the urethane-urea linkages of the hard segment, releasing low calorific capacity products and the degradation of polyol derived products with higher calorific capacity than those derived from isocyanate. The initial degradation temperature of PIR-layered filler samples decreases compared with neat PIR foam, indicating that incorporation of flame retardants decelerates the degradation of PIR foam and as a result decreases the thermal stability of PIR foam. The cone calorimeter data showed that the effects of LDH alone has limited effect on reducing the heat release rate (HRR) or smoke production rate (SPR) as it is only act in the solid phase. With the addition of EG or EG+APP, HRR is further decreased owing to the increased char strength as well as the release of non-combustible gases, and simultaneously effectively suppress smoke and gases during the combustion process.

KW - polyisocyanurate insulation

KW - layer doubled hydroxides

KW - expanded graphite

KW - ammonium polyphosphate

KW - fire performance

KW - thermogravimetric analysis

KW - cone calorimeter analysis

U2 - 10.18720/SPBPU/2/k19-40

DO - 10.18720/SPBPU/2/k19-40

M3 - Conference contribution

BT - Proceedings 9th International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards

ER -