Investigation of concentrating and nonconcentrating evacuated tube solar water heaters using 2D particle imaging velocimetry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Under transient climatic conditions, solar water heaters using heat pipes are more effective at capturing incident solar radiation than other equivalent sized solar water heaters. The cost must be reduced to improve uptake of such systems. To investigate two methods were considered by this study: thermosyphon fluid flow and reflective concentrators. A physical reconfigurable laboratory model of the manifold and associated condensers of a heat-pipe-evacuated tube system were fabricated; fluid circulation was via thermosyphonic action, particle imaging velocimetry derived velocity maps and the use of concentrators was simulated. When condenser spacing was doubled, the Nusselt number increased by 43%, the velocity by 55% but the heat transfer efficiency of the model manifold decreased by 9%. Potential annual energy savings of 10 207 GWh could be realized if such systems could be successfully fabricated.
LanguageEnglish
Pages283-287
JournalInternational Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2015

Fingerprint

Solar water heaters
Heat pipes
Velocity measurement
pipe
Condensers (liquefiers)
Imaging techniques
Thermosyphons
Incident solar radiation
Nusselt number
Potential energy
heat transfer
fluid flow
Flow of fluids
solar radiation
Energy conservation
spacing
Heat transfer
water
Fluids
fluid

Keywords

  • thermosyphon
  • fluid flow visualisation
  • solar energy
  • particle imaging velocimetry
  • compound parabolic concentrators
  • evacuated tube solar water heaters

Cite this

@article{ec2c86cd51c24e1a9f27847b68f9a1c4,
title = "Investigation of concentrating and nonconcentrating evacuated tube solar water heaters using 2D particle imaging velocimetry",
abstract = "Under transient climatic conditions, solar water heaters using heat pipes are more effective at capturing incident solar radiation than other equivalent sized solar water heaters. The cost must be reduced to improve uptake of such systems. To investigate two methods were considered by this study: thermosyphon fluid flow and reflective concentrators. A physical reconfigurable laboratory model of the manifold and associated condensers of a heat-pipe-evacuated tube system were fabricated; fluid circulation was via thermosyphonic action, particle imaging velocimetry derived velocity maps and the use of concentrators was simulated. When condenser spacing was doubled, the Nusselt number increased by 43{\%}, the velocity by 55{\%} but the heat transfer efficiency of the model manifold decreased by 9{\%}. Potential annual energy savings of 10 207 GWh could be realized if such systems could be successfully fabricated.",
keywords = "thermosyphon, fluid flow visualisation, solar energy, particle imaging velocimetry, compound parabolic concentrators, evacuated tube solar water heaters",
author = "Redpath, {David A.G.} and Philip Dalzell and Philip Griffiths and Neil Hewitt",
note = "Reference text: ↵ Energy Saving Trust. Solar Water Heating,. 29 December 2013. [Online]. http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Generating-energy/Choosing-a-renewable-technology/Solar-water-heating#3 (29 December 2013, date last accessed). ↵ ESTIF. Solar Thermal Markets in Europe Trends and Market Statistics 2012. 1 June 2012. [Online]. http://www.estif.org/fileadmin/estif/content/market_data/downloads/Solar_Thermal_M{\%}20arkets{\%}202012.pdf (30 December 2013, date last accessed). ↵ DeVries H, Kamminga W, Francken J. Fluid cicrculation control in conventional and heat pipe planar solar collectors. Solar Energy 1980;24:209-213. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar Ortabasi U, Fehlner FP. Cusp mirror heat-pipe evacuated tubular solar thermal colector. Solar Energy 1980;24:477-489. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Hull JR. Comparison of heat transfer in solar collectors with heat pipe versus flow through absorbers. ASME J Solar Energy Eng 1987;109:253-258. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Norton B, Probert SD. Thermosyphon solar water heaters. Adv Solar Energy 1986;3:125-170. Search Google Scholar ↵ Winston R. Priniciles of solar concentrators of a novel design. Solar Energy 1974;16:89-95. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ O'Gallagher JJ. Nonimaging Optics in Solar Energy 2008. Morgan and Claypool. Search Google Scholar ↵ Garcia-Valladares O, Pilatowsky I, Ruiz V. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behaviour of solar domestic water heating. Solar Energy 2008;82:613-622. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Anon. Solar Heating-Domestic Water Heating Systems, Part 2: Outdoor Test Methods for System Performance Characterization and Yearly Performance Prediction Solar Only Systems, ISO 9459-2 1995. International Standard, Geneva. ↵ Budihardjo I, Morrison GL, Behnia M. Performance of a water-in-glass evacuated solar water heater. Proceedings of Australian New Zealand Solar Energy Society, Newcastle, Australia 2002. Search Google Scholar ↵ Morrison GL, Budihardjo I, Behnia M. Water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. Solar Energy 2004;76:135-140. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Budihardjo I, Morrison GL. Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. Solar Energy 2009;83:49-56. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Lierberman J, Gebhart B. Interactions in natural convection from an array of heated elements, experimental. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1969;12:1385-1389. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Corcione M. Interactive free convection from a pair of vertical tube-arrays at moderate Rayleigh numbers. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2007;50:1061-1074. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar Morgan VT. The overall convective heat transfer from smooth circular cylinders. Adv Heat Transfer 1975;11:119-264. Search Google Scholar Farouk B, Guceri SI. Natural convection in interacting flow fields. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1983;26:231-243. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar Corcione M. Correlating equations for free convection heat transfer from horizontal isothermal cylinders set in a vertical array. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2005;48:3660-3673. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Morrison GL, Budihardjo I, Behnia M. Measurement and simulation of flow rate in a water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heater. Solar Energy 2005;78:257-267. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Morrison GL, Ranatunga DBJ. Thermosyphon circulation in solar collectors. Solar Energy 1980;24:191-198. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Redpath DAG, Eames PC, Lo SNG, Griffiths PW. Experimental investigation of natural convection heat exchange within a physical model of the manifold chamber of a thermosyphon heat-pipe evacuated tube solar water heater. Solar Energy 2009;83:988-997. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar Redpath DAG. Thermosyphon heat-pipe evacuated tube solar water heaters for northern maritime climates. Solar Energy 2012;86:705-715. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Redpath DAG, Griffiths PW, Lo SNG, Herron MG. Experimental investigation of fluid flow regime in thermosyphon heat-pipe evacuated tube solar water heaters. in PLEA, Towards Zero Energy Buildings, Dublin. 2008. Search Google Scholar ↵ Anon. Dynamic Studio v3.14 User's Guide 2010. Dantec Dynamics. Skovlunde. ↵ Energy Saving Trust. Here Comes the Sun: A Field Trial of Solar Water Heating Systems. 30 September 2011. [Online]. http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Publications2/Generating-energy/Field-trial-reports/Here-comes-the-sun-a-field-trial-of-solar-water-heating-systems (31 December 2013, date last accessed). ↵ DGS. Planning and Installing Solar Thermal Systems: a Guide for Installers, Architects, the German Solar Energy Society. 2005. James and James. ↵ I. E. Agency. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion Highlights 2012, 31 October 2012. [Online]. http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf (31 December 2013, date last accessed).",
year = "2015",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1093/ijlct/ctu004",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "283--287",
journal = "International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies",
issn = "1748-1317",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Investigation of concentrating and nonconcentrating evacuated tube solar water heaters using 2D particle imaging velocimetry

AU - Redpath, David A.G.

AU - Dalzell, Philip

AU - Griffiths, Philip

AU - Hewitt, Neil

N1 - Reference text: ↵ Energy Saving Trust. Solar Water Heating,. 29 December 2013. [Online]. http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Generating-energy/Choosing-a-renewable-technology/Solar-water-heating#3 (29 December 2013, date last accessed). ↵ ESTIF. Solar Thermal Markets in Europe Trends and Market Statistics 2012. 1 June 2012. [Online]. http://www.estif.org/fileadmin/estif/content/market_data/downloads/Solar_Thermal_M%20arkets%202012.pdf (30 December 2013, date last accessed). ↵ DeVries H, Kamminga W, Francken J. Fluid cicrculation control in conventional and heat pipe planar solar collectors. Solar Energy 1980;24:209-213. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar Ortabasi U, Fehlner FP. Cusp mirror heat-pipe evacuated tubular solar thermal colector. Solar Energy 1980;24:477-489. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Hull JR. Comparison of heat transfer in solar collectors with heat pipe versus flow through absorbers. ASME J Solar Energy Eng 1987;109:253-258. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Norton B, Probert SD. Thermosyphon solar water heaters. Adv Solar Energy 1986;3:125-170. Search Google Scholar ↵ Winston R. Priniciles of solar concentrators of a novel design. Solar Energy 1974;16:89-95. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ O'Gallagher JJ. Nonimaging Optics in Solar Energy 2008. Morgan and Claypool. Search Google Scholar ↵ Garcia-Valladares O, Pilatowsky I, Ruiz V. Outdoor test method to determine the thermal behaviour of solar domestic water heating. Solar Energy 2008;82:613-622. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Anon. Solar Heating-Domestic Water Heating Systems, Part 2: Outdoor Test Methods for System Performance Characterization and Yearly Performance Prediction Solar Only Systems, ISO 9459-2 1995. International Standard, Geneva. ↵ Budihardjo I, Morrison GL, Behnia M. Performance of a water-in-glass evacuated solar water heater. Proceedings of Australian New Zealand Solar Energy Society, Newcastle, Australia 2002. Search Google Scholar ↵ Morrison GL, Budihardjo I, Behnia M. Water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. Solar Energy 2004;76:135-140. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Budihardjo I, Morrison GL. Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. Solar Energy 2009;83:49-56. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Lierberman J, Gebhart B. Interactions in natural convection from an array of heated elements, experimental. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1969;12:1385-1389. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Corcione M. Interactive free convection from a pair of vertical tube-arrays at moderate Rayleigh numbers. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2007;50:1061-1074. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar Morgan VT. The overall convective heat transfer from smooth circular cylinders. Adv Heat Transfer 1975;11:119-264. Search Google Scholar Farouk B, Guceri SI. Natural convection in interacting flow fields. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1983;26:231-243. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar Corcione M. Correlating equations for free convection heat transfer from horizontal isothermal cylinders set in a vertical array. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2005;48:3660-3673. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Morrison GL, Budihardjo I, Behnia M. Measurement and simulation of flow rate in a water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heater. Solar Energy 2005;78:257-267. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Morrison GL, Ranatunga DBJ. Thermosyphon circulation in solar collectors. Solar Energy 1980;24:191-198. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Redpath DAG, Eames PC, Lo SNG, Griffiths PW. Experimental investigation of natural convection heat exchange within a physical model of the manifold chamber of a thermosyphon heat-pipe evacuated tube solar water heater. Solar Energy 2009;83:988-997. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar Redpath DAG. Thermosyphon heat-pipe evacuated tube solar water heaters for northern maritime climates. Solar Energy 2012;86:705-715. CrossRefWeb of Science Search Google Scholar ↵ Redpath DAG, Griffiths PW, Lo SNG, Herron MG. Experimental investigation of fluid flow regime in thermosyphon heat-pipe evacuated tube solar water heaters. in PLEA, Towards Zero Energy Buildings, Dublin. 2008. Search Google Scholar ↵ Anon. Dynamic Studio v3.14 User's Guide 2010. Dantec Dynamics. Skovlunde. ↵ Energy Saving Trust. Here Comes the Sun: A Field Trial of Solar Water Heating Systems. 30 September 2011. [Online]. http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Publications2/Generating-energy/Field-trial-reports/Here-comes-the-sun-a-field-trial-of-solar-water-heating-systems (31 December 2013, date last accessed). ↵ DGS. Planning and Installing Solar Thermal Systems: a Guide for Installers, Architects, the German Solar Energy Society. 2005. James and James. ↵ I. E. Agency. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion Highlights 2012, 31 October 2012. [Online]. http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf (31 December 2013, date last accessed).

PY - 2015/9

Y1 - 2015/9

N2 - Under transient climatic conditions, solar water heaters using heat pipes are more effective at capturing incident solar radiation than other equivalent sized solar water heaters. The cost must be reduced to improve uptake of such systems. To investigate two methods were considered by this study: thermosyphon fluid flow and reflective concentrators. A physical reconfigurable laboratory model of the manifold and associated condensers of a heat-pipe-evacuated tube system were fabricated; fluid circulation was via thermosyphonic action, particle imaging velocimetry derived velocity maps and the use of concentrators was simulated. When condenser spacing was doubled, the Nusselt number increased by 43%, the velocity by 55% but the heat transfer efficiency of the model manifold decreased by 9%. Potential annual energy savings of 10 207 GWh could be realized if such systems could be successfully fabricated.

AB - Under transient climatic conditions, solar water heaters using heat pipes are more effective at capturing incident solar radiation than other equivalent sized solar water heaters. The cost must be reduced to improve uptake of such systems. To investigate two methods were considered by this study: thermosyphon fluid flow and reflective concentrators. A physical reconfigurable laboratory model of the manifold and associated condensers of a heat-pipe-evacuated tube system were fabricated; fluid circulation was via thermosyphonic action, particle imaging velocimetry derived velocity maps and the use of concentrators was simulated. When condenser spacing was doubled, the Nusselt number increased by 43%, the velocity by 55% but the heat transfer efficiency of the model manifold decreased by 9%. Potential annual energy savings of 10 207 GWh could be realized if such systems could be successfully fabricated.

KW - thermosyphon

KW - fluid flow visualisation

KW - solar energy

KW - particle imaging velocimetry

KW - compound parabolic concentrators

KW - evacuated tube solar water heaters

U2 - 10.1093/ijlct/ctu004

DO - 10.1093/ijlct/ctu004

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 283

EP - 287

JO - International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies

T2 - International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies

JF - International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies

SN - 1748-1317

IS - 3

ER -