Investigating perceptions of cohesion, performance, and satisfaction in sport officiating groups

David J. Hancock, Kyle F. Paradis, Luc J. Martin, M. Blair Evans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


Since sport officials constitute instrumental groups, their perceptions of, and interactions with, group members likely influence their performance, satisfaction, and retention. This warrants investigation into sport officiating groups. Rationale/Purpose: (1) Examine the relationship between sport officials’ cohesion, satisfaction, and performance; (2) Investigate sport officials’ perceptions of cohesion across sports; and (3) Explore sport officials’ perceptions of group processes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Using a cross-sectional design, participants (N = 228) completed a survey measuring perceptions of cohesion, performance, and satisfaction. Findings: Responses demonstrated consistent positive relationships between cohesion, performance, and satisfaction. Path analysis found that task cohesion predicted performance and satisfaction. Participants rated task cohesion higher than social cohesion, with American football highest and Association football lowest. Practical implications: Officiating organizations can use these results to reconsider assigning practices and develop strategies that improve cohesion, leading to increased performance and retention. Research contribution: Results highlight the need for sustained research to further understand how group processes influence sport officials and their performances. This study is novel as there is a dearth of research on how group dynamics influence sport officials’ performances and retention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalManaging Sport and Leisure
Early online date28 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished online - 28 Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.


  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • group dynamics
  • performance
  • sport officiating
  • cohesion
  • Referees


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