Interpretations of National Identity in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: A Comparison of Different School Settings

Andrea Furey, Caitlin Donnelly, Joanne Hughes, Danielle Blaylock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It is generally accepted that education has a significant role to play in any society transitioning from conflict to a more peaceful dispensation. Indeed, some have argued that the education system potentially represents the single most effective agent of social change with the capacity to bridge ethnic division in conflict affected countries. Despite the potential, educational policy makers grapple with the dilemma as to precisely how school systems can best facilitate this agenda. This paper thus attempts to shed light upon the dilemma by exploring pupil identity and associated intergroup attitudes across various school types in Northern Ireland. Five schools were selected for the study with each one representing a particular sector within the Northern Irish education system (maintained grammar, maintained secondary, controlled grammar, controlled secondary, integrated). This led to a total sample size of 265 pupils. The main findings show that children across separate Catholic, separate Protestant, and mixed Catholic and Protestant educational contexts construct and interpret identity differently. At the same time, our data suggests that no one school setting has supremacy in promoting social cohesion. The implications of these findings are discussed.
LanguageEnglish
JournalResearch Papers in Education
Volumen/a
Early online date28 Mar 2016
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Mar 2016

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national identity
education system
grammar
pupil
school type
interpretation
social cohesion
school system
educational policy
school
social change
education
Society

Keywords

  • Integrated education
  • separate education
  • identity
  • intergroup attitudes

Cite this

@article{3e5a5ec29afe406fb7da8d489cceebd5,
title = "Interpretations of National Identity in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: A Comparison of Different School Settings",
abstract = "It is generally accepted that education has a significant role to play in any society transitioning from conflict to a more peaceful dispensation. Indeed, some have argued that the education system potentially represents the single most effective agent of social change with the capacity to bridge ethnic division in conflict affected countries. Despite the potential, educational policy makers grapple with the dilemma as to precisely how school systems can best facilitate this agenda. This paper thus attempts to shed light upon the dilemma by exploring pupil identity and associated intergroup attitudes across various school types in Northern Ireland. Five schools were selected for the study with each one representing a particular sector within the Northern Irish education system (maintained grammar, maintained secondary, controlled grammar, controlled secondary, integrated). This led to a total sample size of 265 pupils. The main findings show that children across separate Catholic, separate Protestant, and mixed Catholic and Protestant educational contexts construct and interpret identity differently. At the same time, our data suggests that no one school setting has supremacy in promoting social cohesion. The implications of these findings are discussed.",
keywords = "Integrated education, separate education, identity, intergroup attitudes",
author = "Andrea Furey and Caitlin Donnelly and Joanne Hughes and Danielle Blaylock",
note = "Reference text: References Akenson, DH (1973) Education and Enmity: The Control of Schooling. Northern Ireland 1920-1950 (David and Charles Ltd). Ashmore, R. D., Deaux, K., & McLaughlin-Volpe, T. (2004) An organizing framework for collective identity: articulation and significance of multidimensionality, Psychological bulletin, 130(1), 80. Bain, G. (2006) Schools for the Future: Funding, Strategy (Sharing Report of the Independent Strategic Review of Education). Buckland, P. (1979) The Factory of Grievances: devolved government in Northern Ireland (Dublin, 1979). Bull, P. (2006). Shifting patterns of social identity in Northern Ireland. PSYCHOLOGIST-LEICESTER-, 19(1), 40-43.Cairns, E. (1982) Intergroup conflict in Northern Ireland, in: H. Tajfel (Ed) Social identity and intergroup relations (pp. 277-297) (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press). Cassidy, C., & Trew, K. (1998) Identities in Northern Ireland: A multidimensional approach, Journal of Social Issues, 54(4), 725-740. Cassidy, C., & Trew, K. (2004) Identity change in Northern Ireland: A longitudinal study of students' transition to university, Journal of Social Issues, 60(3), 523-540. Deaux, K. (1996) Social identification, in: E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds) Social Psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 777-798) (New York: Guilford). Dey, I. (1993) Creating categories: Qualitative data analysis, 94-112 (Routledge). Dixon, J; Durrheim, K., & Tredoux, C (2005). Beyond the Optimal Contact Strategy A Reality Check for the Contact Hypothesis, American Psychologist, 60, 7, 697-711. Dixon, J., Levine M., Reicher, S., & Durrheim, K. (2012) Beyond prejudice: are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution? Behaviour Brain Science, 35(6):411-25. Doosje, B., & Ellemers, N. (1997) Stereotyping under threat: The role of group identification, in: R. Spears, P. J Oakes, N. Ellemers & S. A. Haslam (Eds) The social psychology of stereotyping and group life (pp. 257-272) (Oxford, Blackwell). Dunn, S., & Morgan, V. (1999) 'A Fraught Path'-education as a basis for developing improved community relations in Northern Ireland, Oxford review of education, 25(1-2), 141-153. Durkheim, E. (1956) Education and sociology (Simon and Schuster). Elizabeth, V. (2008) Another String to Our Bow: Participant Writing as Research Method, Forum Qualitative Social Research Volume 9, No. 1, Art. 31 – January. Ellemers, N., Kortekaas, P., & Ouwerkerk, J. W. (1999) Self‐categorisation, commitment to the group and group self‐esteem as related but distinct aspects of social identity, European journal of social psychology, 29(2‐3), 371-389. Emler, N., & Hopkins, N. (1990) Reputation, social identity and the self. Social identity theory: Constructive and critical advances, 113-130 (New York, Springer-Verlag). Ethier, K. A., & Deaux, K. (1994) Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat, Journal of personality and social psychology, 67(2), 243. Fahey, T., Hayes, B. C., & Sinnott, R. (2005). Conflict and consensus: A study of values and attitudes in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Institute of public administration.Finlay, A. (2001) Defeatism and northern Protestant ‘identity’, The Global Review of Ethnopolitics, 1(2), 3-20. Firestone, W. A. (1987) Meaning in method: The rhetoric of quantitative and qualitative research, Educational researcher, 16(7), 16-21. Halstead, M. & McLaughlin, TJ. (2005) Are faith schools divisive?, in: R. Gardner, J. Cairns & D. Lawton (Eds) Faith schools consensus and Conflict (pp61-73) (Routledge-Falmer). Hayes, B. C., McAllister, I., & Dowds, L. (2007) Integrated Education, Intergroup Relations, and Political Identities in Northern Ireland, Social Problems Vol. 54, Issue 4, pp. 454–482. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967) The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research (New York: Aldine). Goetz, J. P., & LeCompte, M. D. (1981) Ethnographic research and the problem of Data Reduction1, Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 12(1), 51-70. Irish News (October 21, 2014) Catholic school chiefs say: stop promoting integrated education. Jackman, M. R., & Crane, M. (1986) “Some of my best friends are Black . . .”: Interracial friendship and Whites’ racial attitudes, Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 459–486. Jackson, S. E. (1981) Measurement of commitment to role identities, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(1), 138. Jackson, J. W., & Smith, E. R. (1999) Conceptualizing social identity: A new framework and evidence for the impact of different dimensions, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(1), 120-135. Judge, H. (2001) Faith-based Schools and State Funding: A partial argument, Oxford Review of Education Vol. 27, No. 4. Lederach, JP. (2003) Beyond intractability Conflict Transformation, (http://www.beyondintractability.org/about/citing-beyond-intractability-resources accessed October 2014) Levinson, M. (2007) “Common Schools and Multicultural Education”, Journal of Philosophy of Education 41(4): 625-42. Maykut, P. S., & Morehouse, R. E. (1994) Beginning qualitative research: A philosophic and practical guide (Vol. 6) (London, Falmer Press). McGlynn, C., Niens, U., Cairns, E., & Hewstone, M. (2004) Moving out of conflict: the contribution of integrated schools in Northern Ireland to identity, attitudes, forgiveness and reconciliation, Journal of Peace Education, 1, 147-163. Muldoon, O. T., Trew, K., Todd, J., Rougier, N., & McLaughlin, K. (2007) Religious and national identity after the Belfast Good Friday Agreement, Political Psychology, 28(1), 89-103. Mummendey, A., Klink, A., & Brown, R. (2001) Nationalism and patriotism: National identification and out‐group rejection, British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(2), 159-172. Murray, D. (1985) Worlds Apart: Segregated Schools in Northern Ireland (Appletree Press). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, 2011 Census:. Downloaded from: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/Census.html Patton, M. Q. (1990) Qualitative evaluation and research methods (SAGE Publications, inc). Pring, R. (2005) Faith Schools: can they be justified? in: R. Gardner, J. Cairns & D. Lawton (Eds) Faith schools consensus and Conflict (pp51-60) (Routledge-Falmer). Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'connor, C. (1987) Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach, Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(6), 1061. Schubotz, D., & Devine, P. (2005). What now? Exploring community relations among 16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Shared Space, Jg, 1, 53-70.Strike, K. (2001) Civil Society and Schooling: particularistic voices and public spaces, in: Heinz-Dieter Meyer, William Lowe Boyd (Eds) Education Between Stedate, Markets, and Civil Society: Comparative Perspectives (New Jersey: Taylor and Francis). Stryker, S., & Serpe, R. T. (1982) Commitment, identity salience, and role behavior: Theory and research example, in: Personality, roles, and social behavior (pp. 199-218) (Springer, New York). Tajfel, H. (1978) (Ed) Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the psychology of intergroup relations (London, Academic Press). Trew, K., & Benson, D. E. (1996) Dimensions of social identity in Northern Ireland, Changing European identities: Social-psychological analyses of social change, 123-143. Trew, K, Cox, C and Ward, P. (1995). Dimensions of Social Identity in Northern Ireland. Report.Turner, J. C. (1982) Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group, in: H. Tajfel (Ed) Social identity and intergroup relations, 15-40 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press). Waddell, N. (1988) Situational determinants of social identity salience in Northern Ireland, Unpublished doctoral dissertation (University of Ulster, Coleraine). Waddell, N., & Cairns, E. (1986) Identity preference in Northern Ireland, Political Psychology, 12, 2, 205-213.",
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Interpretations of National Identity in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: A Comparison of Different School Settings. / Furey, Andrea; Donnelly, Caitlin; Hughes, Joanne; Blaylock, Danielle.

In: Research Papers in Education, Vol. n/a, 28.03.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Interpretations of National Identity in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland: A Comparison of Different School Settings

AU - Furey, Andrea

AU - Donnelly, Caitlin

AU - Hughes, Joanne

AU - Blaylock, Danielle

N1 - Reference text: References Akenson, DH (1973) Education and Enmity: The Control of Schooling. Northern Ireland 1920-1950 (David and Charles Ltd). Ashmore, R. D., Deaux, K., & McLaughlin-Volpe, T. (2004) An organizing framework for collective identity: articulation and significance of multidimensionality, Psychological bulletin, 130(1), 80. Bain, G. (2006) Schools for the Future: Funding, Strategy (Sharing Report of the Independent Strategic Review of Education). Buckland, P. (1979) The Factory of Grievances: devolved government in Northern Ireland (Dublin, 1979). Bull, P. (2006). Shifting patterns of social identity in Northern Ireland. PSYCHOLOGIST-LEICESTER-, 19(1), 40-43.Cairns, E. (1982) Intergroup conflict in Northern Ireland, in: H. Tajfel (Ed) Social identity and intergroup relations (pp. 277-297) (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press). Cassidy, C., & Trew, K. (1998) Identities in Northern Ireland: A multidimensional approach, Journal of Social Issues, 54(4), 725-740. Cassidy, C., & Trew, K. (2004) Identity change in Northern Ireland: A longitudinal study of students' transition to university, Journal of Social Issues, 60(3), 523-540. Deaux, K. (1996) Social identification, in: E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds) Social Psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 777-798) (New York: Guilford). Dey, I. (1993) Creating categories: Qualitative data analysis, 94-112 (Routledge). Dixon, J; Durrheim, K., & Tredoux, C (2005). Beyond the Optimal Contact Strategy A Reality Check for the Contact Hypothesis, American Psychologist, 60, 7, 697-711. Dixon, J., Levine M., Reicher, S., & Durrheim, K. (2012) Beyond prejudice: are negative evaluations the problem and is getting us to like one another more the solution? Behaviour Brain Science, 35(6):411-25. Doosje, B., & Ellemers, N. (1997) Stereotyping under threat: The role of group identification, in: R. Spears, P. J Oakes, N. Ellemers & S. A. Haslam (Eds) The social psychology of stereotyping and group life (pp. 257-272) (Oxford, Blackwell). Dunn, S., & Morgan, V. (1999) 'A Fraught Path'-education as a basis for developing improved community relations in Northern Ireland, Oxford review of education, 25(1-2), 141-153. Durkheim, E. (1956) Education and sociology (Simon and Schuster). Elizabeth, V. (2008) Another String to Our Bow: Participant Writing as Research Method, Forum Qualitative Social Research Volume 9, No. 1, Art. 31 – January. Ellemers, N., Kortekaas, P., & Ouwerkerk, J. W. (1999) Self‐categorisation, commitment to the group and group self‐esteem as related but distinct aspects of social identity, European journal of social psychology, 29(2‐3), 371-389. Emler, N., & Hopkins, N. (1990) Reputation, social identity and the self. Social identity theory: Constructive and critical advances, 113-130 (New York, Springer-Verlag). Ethier, K. A., & Deaux, K. (1994) Negotiating social identity when contexts change: Maintaining identification and responding to threat, Journal of personality and social psychology, 67(2), 243. Fahey, T., Hayes, B. C., & Sinnott, R. (2005). Conflict and consensus: A study of values and attitudes in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Institute of public administration.Finlay, A. (2001) Defeatism and northern Protestant ‘identity’, The Global Review of Ethnopolitics, 1(2), 3-20. Firestone, W. A. (1987) Meaning in method: The rhetoric of quantitative and qualitative research, Educational researcher, 16(7), 16-21. Halstead, M. & McLaughlin, TJ. (2005) Are faith schools divisive?, in: R. Gardner, J. Cairns & D. Lawton (Eds) Faith schools consensus and Conflict (pp61-73) (Routledge-Falmer). Hayes, B. C., McAllister, I., & Dowds, L. (2007) Integrated Education, Intergroup Relations, and Political Identities in Northern Ireland, Social Problems Vol. 54, Issue 4, pp. 454–482. Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967) The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research (New York: Aldine). Goetz, J. P., & LeCompte, M. D. (1981) Ethnographic research and the problem of Data Reduction1, Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 12(1), 51-70. Irish News (October 21, 2014) Catholic school chiefs say: stop promoting integrated education. Jackman, M. R., & Crane, M. (1986) “Some of my best friends are Black . . .”: Interracial friendship and Whites’ racial attitudes, Public Opinion Quarterly, 50, 459–486. Jackson, S. E. (1981) Measurement of commitment to role identities, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(1), 138. Jackson, J. W., & Smith, E. R. (1999) Conceptualizing social identity: A new framework and evidence for the impact of different dimensions, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(1), 120-135. Judge, H. (2001) Faith-based Schools and State Funding: A partial argument, Oxford Review of Education Vol. 27, No. 4. Lederach, JP. (2003) Beyond intractability Conflict Transformation, (http://www.beyondintractability.org/about/citing-beyond-intractability-resources accessed October 2014) Levinson, M. (2007) “Common Schools and Multicultural Education”, Journal of Philosophy of Education 41(4): 625-42. Maykut, P. S., & Morehouse, R. E. (1994) Beginning qualitative research: A philosophic and practical guide (Vol. 6) (London, Falmer Press). McGlynn, C., Niens, U., Cairns, E., & Hewstone, M. (2004) Moving out of conflict: the contribution of integrated schools in Northern Ireland to identity, attitudes, forgiveness and reconciliation, Journal of Peace Education, 1, 147-163. Muldoon, O. T., Trew, K., Todd, J., Rougier, N., & McLaughlin, K. (2007) Religious and national identity after the Belfast Good Friday Agreement, Political Psychology, 28(1), 89-103. Mummendey, A., Klink, A., & Brown, R. (2001) Nationalism and patriotism: National identification and out‐group rejection, British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(2), 159-172. Murray, D. (1985) Worlds Apart: Segregated Schools in Northern Ireland (Appletree Press). Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, 2011 Census:. Downloaded from: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/Census.html Patton, M. Q. (1990) Qualitative evaluation and research methods (SAGE Publications, inc). Pring, R. (2005) Faith Schools: can they be justified? in: R. Gardner, J. Cairns & D. Lawton (Eds) Faith schools consensus and Conflict (pp51-60) (Routledge-Falmer). Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'connor, C. (1987) Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach, Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(6), 1061. Schubotz, D., & Devine, P. (2005). What now? Exploring community relations among 16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Shared Space, Jg, 1, 53-70.Strike, K. (2001) Civil Society and Schooling: particularistic voices and public spaces, in: Heinz-Dieter Meyer, William Lowe Boyd (Eds) Education Between Stedate, Markets, and Civil Society: Comparative Perspectives (New Jersey: Taylor and Francis). Stryker, S., & Serpe, R. T. (1982) Commitment, identity salience, and role behavior: Theory and research example, in: Personality, roles, and social behavior (pp. 199-218) (Springer, New York). Tajfel, H. (1978) (Ed) Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the psychology of intergroup relations (London, Academic Press). Trew, K., & Benson, D. E. (1996) Dimensions of social identity in Northern Ireland, Changing European identities: Social-psychological analyses of social change, 123-143. Trew, K, Cox, C and Ward, P. (1995). Dimensions of Social Identity in Northern Ireland. Report.Turner, J. C. (1982) Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group, in: H. Tajfel (Ed) Social identity and intergroup relations, 15-40 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press). Waddell, N. (1988) Situational determinants of social identity salience in Northern Ireland, Unpublished doctoral dissertation (University of Ulster, Coleraine). Waddell, N., & Cairns, E. (1986) Identity preference in Northern Ireland, Political Psychology, 12, 2, 205-213.

PY - 2016/3/28

Y1 - 2016/3/28

N2 - It is generally accepted that education has a significant role to play in any society transitioning from conflict to a more peaceful dispensation. Indeed, some have argued that the education system potentially represents the single most effective agent of social change with the capacity to bridge ethnic division in conflict affected countries. Despite the potential, educational policy makers grapple with the dilemma as to precisely how school systems can best facilitate this agenda. This paper thus attempts to shed light upon the dilemma by exploring pupil identity and associated intergroup attitudes across various school types in Northern Ireland. Five schools were selected for the study with each one representing a particular sector within the Northern Irish education system (maintained grammar, maintained secondary, controlled grammar, controlled secondary, integrated). This led to a total sample size of 265 pupils. The main findings show that children across separate Catholic, separate Protestant, and mixed Catholic and Protestant educational contexts construct and interpret identity differently. At the same time, our data suggests that no one school setting has supremacy in promoting social cohesion. The implications of these findings are discussed.

AB - It is generally accepted that education has a significant role to play in any society transitioning from conflict to a more peaceful dispensation. Indeed, some have argued that the education system potentially represents the single most effective agent of social change with the capacity to bridge ethnic division in conflict affected countries. Despite the potential, educational policy makers grapple with the dilemma as to precisely how school systems can best facilitate this agenda. This paper thus attempts to shed light upon the dilemma by exploring pupil identity and associated intergroup attitudes across various school types in Northern Ireland. Five schools were selected for the study with each one representing a particular sector within the Northern Irish education system (maintained grammar, maintained secondary, controlled grammar, controlled secondary, integrated). This led to a total sample size of 265 pupils. The main findings show that children across separate Catholic, separate Protestant, and mixed Catholic and Protestant educational contexts construct and interpret identity differently. At the same time, our data suggests that no one school setting has supremacy in promoting social cohesion. The implications of these findings are discussed.

KW - Integrated education

KW - separate education

KW - identity

KW - intergroup attitudes

U2 - 10.1080/02671522.2016.1158855

DO - 10.1080/02671522.2016.1158855

M3 - Article

VL - n/a

JO - Research Papers in Education

T2 - Research Papers in Education

JF - Research Papers in Education

SN - 0267-1522

ER -