Insulin secretory actions of ethanolic extract of <i>Acacia arabica</i> bark in high fat-fed-diet induced obese type 2 diabetic rats

Prawej Ansari, Sara S. Islam, Samia Akther, Joyeeta T. Khan, Jaber A. Shihab, Yasser H. A. Abdel-Wahab

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Acacia arabica commonly known as 'babul' has been widely used for the treatment of numerous diseases, including diabetes due to their potential pharmacological actions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties of ethanol extract of Acacia arabica (EEAA) bark through in vitro and in vivo studies in high fat-fed (HFF) rats. EEAA at 40-5000 μg/ml significantly increased (P<0.05-0.001) insulin secretion with 5.6 and 16.7 mM glucose, respectively, from clonal pancreatic BRIN BD11 β-cells. Similarly, EEAA at 10-40 μg/ml demonstrated a substantial (P<0.05-0.001) insulin secretory effect with 16.7 mM glucose from isolated mouse islets, with a magnitude comparable to 1 μM glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Diazoxide, verapamil, and calcium-free conditions decreased insulin secretion by 25-26%. The insulin secretory effect was further potentiated (P<0.05-0.01) with 200 μM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 1.5-fold), 200 μM tolbutamide (1.4-fold), and 30 mM KCl (1.4-fold). EEAA at 40 μg/ml, induced membrane depolarization and elevated intracellular Ca 2+ as well as increased (P<0.05-0.001) glucose uptake in 3T3L1 cells and inhibited starch digestion, glucose diffusion, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) enzyme activity, and protein glycation by 15-38%, 11-29%, 15-64%, and 21-38% (P<0.05, 0.001), respectively. In HFF rats, EEAA (250 mg/5 ml/kg) improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and GLP-1 levels, and lowered DPP-IV enzyme activity. Phytochemical screening of EEAA revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins and anthraquinone. These naturally occurring phytoconstituents may contribute to the potential antidiabetic actions of EEAA. Thus, our finding suggests that EEAA, as a good source of antidiabetic constituents, would be beneficial for Type 2 diabetes patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberBSR20230329
JournalBioscience Reports
Issue number5
Early online date3 May 2023
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to extend their appreciation to Ulster University Strategic Research Funding and Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB), Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh for providing the laboratory facilities to conduct the studies.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).


  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Biophysics
  • Plant Bark/metabolism
  • Ethanol
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/metabolism
  • Blood Glucose/metabolism
  • Rats
  • Acacia/metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy
  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
  • Diet
  • Insulin/metabolism
  • Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism
  • Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
  • Mice
  • Glucose/metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Obesity/drug therapy


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