The use of violence by paramilitaries to punish and to discipline members of their own respective communities is an established practice developed throughout the course of the ‘Troubles’ and continues in the post-conflict period. Paramilitary ‘punishments’ are primarily an urban phenomenon with the bulk of recorded ‘punishments’ occurring within the greater Belfast area. This paper drawing upon the authors’ own database of such attacks will examine the on-going nature of paramilitary ‘punishments’ including the ‘punishment’ process, their frequency and location. Using GIS, the paper will also explore the geographical distribution of ‘punishments’ in the greater Belfast area.
- Northern Ireland
- informal justice