Influence of shaft length on golf driving performance

Ian C. Kenny, Eric S. Wallace, Steve Otto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine how shaft length affects golf driving performance. A range of drivers with lengths between 1.168m and 1.270 m, representing lengths close to the 1.219m limit imposed by R&A Rules Limited (2008), were assembled and evaluated. Clubhead and ball launch conditions and drive distance and accuracy were determined for seven category 1 golfers (handicaps 0.21 ^ 2.41) who performed shots on a purpose-built practice hole. As shaft length increased from 1.168m to 1.270 m, initial ball velocity increased (þ1.8 m/s, P , 0.01). Ball carry (þ4.3 m, P ¼ 0.152) also increased, although not significantly so. Furthermore, as shaft length increased, for all club comparisons there was no decrease in accuracy. Ball launch conditions of spin components and launch angle remained unaffected by shaft length. Launch angle increased (0.88, F ¼ 1.074, P ¼ 0.362) as driver shaft length increased. Our results show that clubhead and ball velocity togetherwith ball carry tended to increase with no loss of accuracy.
LanguageEnglish
Pages322-332
JournalSports Biomechanics
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2008

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Kenny, Ian C. ; Wallace, Eric S. ; Otto, Steve. / Influence of shaft length on golf driving performance. In: Sports Biomechanics. 2008 ; Vol. 7, No. 3. pp. 322-332.
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title = "Influence of shaft length on golf driving performance",
abstract = "The aim of this study was to determine how shaft length affects golf driving performance. A range of drivers with lengths between 1.168m and 1.270 m, representing lengths close to the 1.219m limit imposed by R&A Rules Limited (2008), were assembled and evaluated. Clubhead and ball launch conditions and drive distance and accuracy were determined for seven category 1 golfers (handicaps 0.21 ^ 2.41) who performed shots on a purpose-built practice hole. As shaft length increased from 1.168m to 1.270 m, initial ball velocity increased ({\th}1.8 m/s, P , 0.01). Ball carry ({\th}4.3 m, P ¼ 0.152) also increased, although not significantly so. Furthermore, as shaft length increased, for all club comparisons there was no decrease in accuracy. Ball launch conditions of spin components and launch angle remained unaffected by shaft length. Launch angle increased (0.88, F ¼ 1.074, P ¼ 0.362) as driver shaft length increased. Our results show that clubhead and ball velocity togetherwith ball carry tended to increase with no loss of accuracy.",
author = "Kenny, {Ian C.} and Wallace, {Eric S.} and Steve Otto",
note = "Reference text: Bernstein, N. (1967). Coordination and regulation of movements. New York: Pergamon. Cochran, A. J. (2002). The impact of science and technology on golf equipment – a personal view. The Engineering of Sport, 4, 3–15. Cochran, A., and Stobbs, J. (Eds.) (1968). The search for the perfect swing. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. Egret, C. I., Vincent, O., Weber, J., Dujardin, F. H., and Chollet, D. (2003). Analysis of 3D kinematics concerning three different clubs in golf swing. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 465–469. Fradkin, A. J., Sherman, C. A., and Finch, C. F. (2004). How well does club head speed correlate with golf handicaps. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7, 465–472. Harper, T. E., Roberts, J. R., and Jones, R. (2005). Driver swing weighting: A worthwhile process? Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 219 (B), 385–393. Higgins, J. R. (1977). Human movement: An integrated approach. St. Louis: Mosby. Huntley, M. P. (2007). Comparison of static and dynamic carbon fibre composite golf club shaft properties and their dependence on structure, Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Birmingham. Iwatsubo, T., and Nakajima,D. (2006). Evaluation of long and short shafts of golf club by real swing. The Engineering of Sport, 6, 347–352. Kenny, I. C. (2006). Biomechanical and modelling analysis of shaft length effects on golf driving performance, Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Ulster. Kenny, I. C.,Wallace, E. S., Brown,D., and Otto, S. R. (2006). Validation of a full-body computer simulation model for the golf drive for clubs of differing length. In F. Moritz, and S. Haake (Eds.), The engineering of sport 6(pp. 11–16). New York: Springer. Maltby, R. (1982). Golf club design, fitting, alterations and repair: The principles and procedures, 2nd edn Newark: Ralph Maltby Enterprises. Mizoguchi, M., and Hashiba, T. (2002). Matching the shaft length of a golf club to an individual’s golf swing motion. The Engineering of Sport, 4, 695–700. Newell, K. M., and Corcos, D. M. (Eds.) (1993). Variability and motor control. Champaign: Human Kinetics. Newman, S., Clay, S., and Strickland, P. (1997). The dynamic flexing of a golf club shaft during a typical swing. In K. Bender (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (pp. 265–270). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. Quintavalla, S. J. (2006). Experimental determination of the effects of clubhead speed on driver launch conditions and the effect on drive distance for balls used by the PGA tour. USGA Technical Report RB/cor2006-01. R&A Rules Limited. (2008). Rules of golf. St. Andrews: R&A Rules Limited, The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. Reyes, M. G., and Mittendorf, A. (1999). A mathematical swing model for a long-driving champion. In M. R. Farrally, and A. J. Cochran (Eds.), Science and golf III: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf (pp. 13–19). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Smits, A. J., and Ogg, S. (2004). Golf ball aerodynamics. The Engineering of Sport, 5, 3–10. Stanbridge, K., Jones, R., and Mitchell, S. (2004). The effect of shaft flexibility on junior golfers’ performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 457–464. Wallace, E. S., Otto, S. R., and Nevill, A. (2007). Ball launch conditions for skilled golfers using drivers of different lengths in an indoor testing facility. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, 731–737. Werner, F. D., and Greig, R. C. (2000). How golf clubs really work and how to optimise their design. Jackson: Origin Inc.",
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Influence of shaft length on golf driving performance. / Kenny, Ian C.; Wallace, Eric S.; Otto, Steve.

In: Sports Biomechanics, Vol. 7, No. 3, 01.09.2008, p. 322-332.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Kenny, Ian C.

AU - Wallace, Eric S.

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N1 - Reference text: Bernstein, N. (1967). Coordination and regulation of movements. New York: Pergamon. Cochran, A. J. (2002). The impact of science and technology on golf equipment – a personal view. The Engineering of Sport, 4, 3–15. Cochran, A., and Stobbs, J. (Eds.) (1968). The search for the perfect swing. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. Egret, C. I., Vincent, O., Weber, J., Dujardin, F. H., and Chollet, D. (2003). Analysis of 3D kinematics concerning three different clubs in golf swing. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 465–469. Fradkin, A. J., Sherman, C. A., and Finch, C. F. (2004). How well does club head speed correlate with golf handicaps. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7, 465–472. Harper, T. E., Roberts, J. R., and Jones, R. (2005). Driver swing weighting: A worthwhile process? Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 219 (B), 385–393. Higgins, J. R. (1977). Human movement: An integrated approach. St. Louis: Mosby. Huntley, M. P. (2007). Comparison of static and dynamic carbon fibre composite golf club shaft properties and their dependence on structure, Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Birmingham. Iwatsubo, T., and Nakajima,D. (2006). Evaluation of long and short shafts of golf club by real swing. The Engineering of Sport, 6, 347–352. Kenny, I. C. (2006). Biomechanical and modelling analysis of shaft length effects on golf driving performance, Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Ulster. Kenny, I. C.,Wallace, E. S., Brown,D., and Otto, S. R. (2006). Validation of a full-body computer simulation model for the golf drive for clubs of differing length. In F. Moritz, and S. Haake (Eds.), The engineering of sport 6(pp. 11–16). New York: Springer. Maltby, R. (1982). Golf club design, fitting, alterations and repair: The principles and procedures, 2nd edn Newark: Ralph Maltby Enterprises. Mizoguchi, M., and Hashiba, T. (2002). Matching the shaft length of a golf club to an individual’s golf swing motion. The Engineering of Sport, 4, 695–700. Newell, K. M., and Corcos, D. M. (Eds.) (1993). Variability and motor control. Champaign: Human Kinetics. Newman, S., Clay, S., and Strickland, P. (1997). The dynamic flexing of a golf club shaft during a typical swing. In K. Bender (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (pp. 265–270). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. Quintavalla, S. J. (2006). Experimental determination of the effects of clubhead speed on driver launch conditions and the effect on drive distance for balls used by the PGA tour. USGA Technical Report RB/cor2006-01. R&A Rules Limited. (2008). Rules of golf. St. Andrews: R&A Rules Limited, The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. Reyes, M. G., and Mittendorf, A. (1999). A mathematical swing model for a long-driving champion. In M. R. Farrally, and A. J. Cochran (Eds.), Science and golf III: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf (pp. 13–19). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Smits, A. J., and Ogg, S. (2004). Golf ball aerodynamics. The Engineering of Sport, 5, 3–10. Stanbridge, K., Jones, R., and Mitchell, S. (2004). The effect of shaft flexibility on junior golfers’ performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22, 457–464. Wallace, E. S., Otto, S. R., and Nevill, A. (2007). Ball launch conditions for skilled golfers using drivers of different lengths in an indoor testing facility. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, 731–737. Werner, F. D., and Greig, R. C. (2000). How golf clubs really work and how to optimise their design. Jackson: Origin Inc.

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N2 - The aim of this study was to determine how shaft length affects golf driving performance. A range of drivers with lengths between 1.168m and 1.270 m, representing lengths close to the 1.219m limit imposed by R&A Rules Limited (2008), were assembled and evaluated. Clubhead and ball launch conditions and drive distance and accuracy were determined for seven category 1 golfers (handicaps 0.21 ^ 2.41) who performed shots on a purpose-built practice hole. As shaft length increased from 1.168m to 1.270 m, initial ball velocity increased (þ1.8 m/s, P , 0.01). Ball carry (þ4.3 m, P ¼ 0.152) also increased, although not significantly so. Furthermore, as shaft length increased, for all club comparisons there was no decrease in accuracy. Ball launch conditions of spin components and launch angle remained unaffected by shaft length. Launch angle increased (0.88, F ¼ 1.074, P ¼ 0.362) as driver shaft length increased. Our results show that clubhead and ball velocity togetherwith ball carry tended to increase with no loss of accuracy.

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