Influence of Raster Pattern on Residual Stress and Part Distortion in FDM of Semi-Crystalline Polymers: A Simulation Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
47 Downloads (Pure)


In fused deposition modelling (FDM) based on the selected raster pattern, the developed internal thermal residual stresses can vary considerably affecting the mechanical properties and leading to distinct part distortions. This phenomenon is more pronounced in semi-crystalline than amorphous polymers due to crystallisation. Hence, this study focuses on the simulation of the FDM process of a semi-crystalline polymer (polypropylene) with raster patterns such as line (90◦/90◦), line (0◦/90◦), zigzag (45◦/45◦), zigzag (45◦/−45◦), and concentric from Cura (slicing software). The simulation provides visualisation and prediction of the internally developed thermal residual stresses and resulting warpage with printing time and temperature. The sample with a line (90◦/90◦) raster pattern is considered as the reference sample in order to compare the relative levels of residual stress and warpage in the other printed/simulated samples. Among the considered raster patterns, the concentric pattern displays the lowest amount of warpage (5.5% decrease) along with a significant drop in residual stress of 21%. While the sample with a zigzag (45◦/−45◦) pattern showed the highest increase of 37% in warpage along with a decrease of 9.8% in residual stresses. The sample with a zigzag (45◦/45◦) pattern, exhibited a considerable increase of 16.2% in warpage with a significant increase of 31% in residual stresses. Finally, the sample with a line (0◦/90◦) raster pattern displayed an increase of 24% increase in warpage with an increase of 6.6% in residual stresses.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2746
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 5 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The North West Centre for Advanced Manufacturing (NW CAM) project is supported by the European Union’s INTERREG VA Programme (INT-VA/047), managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). The views and opinions in this document do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission or the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB). If you would like further information about NW CAM, please contact the lead partner, Catalyst, for details.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Fused Deposition Modeling (Fdm)
  • Raster Pattern
  • Residual stress
  • Semi-crystalline Polymers
  • Simulation
  • Warpage


Dive into the research topics of 'Influence of Raster Pattern on Residual Stress and Part Distortion in FDM of Semi-Crystalline Polymers: A Simulation Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this