Improved recording of atrial activity by modified bipolar leads derived from the 12-lead electrocardiogram

Kennedy Alan, Dewar Finlay, Daniel Guldenring, Raymond Bond, McEneaney David, Aaron Peace, James McLaughlin

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2 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the use of multivariate linear regression to estimate three bipolar ECG leads from the 12-lead ECG in order to improve P-wave signal strength. The study population consisted of body surface potential maps recorded from 229 healthy subjects. P-waves were then isolated and population based transformation weights developed. A derived P-lead (measured between the right sternoclavicular joint and midway along the costal margin in line with the seventh intercostal space) demonstrated significant improvement in median P-wave root mean square (RMS) signal strength when compared to lead II (94 μV vs. 76 μV, p <0.001). A derived ES lead (from the EASI lead system) also showed small but significant improvement in median P-wave RMS (79 μV vs. 76 μV, p = 0.0054). Finally, a derived modified Lewis lead did not improve median P-wave RMS when compared to lead II. However, this derived lead improved atrioventricular RMS ratio. P-wave leads derived from the 12-lead ECG can improve signal-to-noise ratio of the P-wave; this may improve the performance of detection algorithms that rely on P-wave analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1017-1021
JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015



  • ECG
  • data science
  • health informatics

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