Improved Nonlinear Model Implementation for VCSEL Behavioral Modeling in Radio-Over-Fiber links

Andrea Giovannini, Muhammad Usman Hadi, Lucas Iogna Prat, Najett Neji, Zerihun Gedeb Tegegne, Carlos Viana, Anne Laure Billabert, Jean Marc Laheurte, Jacopo Nanni, Diego Masotti, Giovanni Tartarini, Jean Luc Polleux

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This paper proposes an improved model for the nonlinear behavior of the components of Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) links focusing here on the laser source. In a previous work, it was shown with a flexible new opto-microwave design approach a first behavioral model of RoF links that exploited the hyperbolic tangent function (the so-called tanh model) to model the high-power nonlinearities. Since this was not sufficient to simulate adequately all the nonlinearities, in this work, for the first time in the authors' knowledge, the improved nonlinear model based on Cann's model is developed, on an electro optic transducer. Then the amplitude-to-amplitude conversion of the link is better taken into account with the introducing of nonlinear properties of the link at high input power in the model. The new transfer equation includes several parameters that can be adjusted to adapt the model to any of the components, especially the photo-emitters under study, which are the main cause of this type of nonlinear behavior of the system. In particular, this improved model is applied on the state-of-the-art 850 nm GaAs Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL), simulating several Figures of Merit such as the Error-Vector Magnitude (EVM) of a Long Term Evolution (LTE) signal with a Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)and the output amplitude-modulated power versus input amplitude-modulated power, also called AM/AM curve. This new proposed nonlinear model outperforms other existing behavioral models and its non linear simulation better fits with the measurements. Finally, we conclude that the performance improvement highly depends on the nonlinearity sharpness parameter, depending on the frequency and the bias current.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6778-6784
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number20
Early online date29 Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 21 Oct 2022

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Publisher Copyright:
© 1983-2012 IEEE.


  • Adaptation models
  • Behavioral model
  • Behavioral sciences
  • Fiber lasers
  • improved Cann's nonlinear model
  • Laser modes
  • Mathematical models
  • Microwave-Photonics
  • Nonlinear optics
  • Radio-over-Fiber (RoF)
  • Vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)
  • Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
  • microwave-photonics
  • improved cann's nonlinear model
  • vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL)
  • radio-over-fiber (RoF)


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