The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) protein is encoded on chromosome 17q21. The SH2 and the DNA binding domains are critical structural components of the protein, together with tyrosine and serine residues that initiate phosphorylation. STAT3 interacts with DNA directly and functions in cells as both a signal transducer and a transcription factor. Its cytoplasmic activation results in dimerisation and nuclear translocation, where it is involved in the transcription of a large number of target genes. STAT3 is hyperactive in cancer cells as a result of upstream STAT3 mutations or enhanced cytokine production in the tumour environment. The STAT3 signalling pathway promotes many hallmarks of carcinogenesis and metastasis, including enhanced cell proliferation and survival, as well as migration and invasion into the extracellular matrix. Recent investigations into novel STAT3-based therapies describe a range of innovative approaches, such as the use of novel oligonucleotide drugs. These limit STAT3 binding to its target genes by attaching to SH2 and DNA-binding domains. Yet, despite these significant steps in understanding the underpinning mechanisms, there are currently no therapeutic agents that addresses STAT3 signalling in a clinically relevant manner.
Bibliographical noteCrown Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- cellular signalling
- therapeutic interventions
- STAT3 inhibitors
- Cell invasion
- Cancer & metastasis
- Cell migration
- Gene Expression Regulation
- STAT3 Transcription Factor/genetics
- Signal Transduction/physiology