Impairment-based assessments for patients with lateral ankle sprain: A systematic review of measurement properties

Alexander Schurz, Jente Wagemans, C M Bleakley, Kevin Kuppens, Dirk Vissers, Jan Taeymans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


Study design

Systematic review.

Background and objective

The International Ankle Consortium developed a core outcome set for the assessment of impairments in patients with lateral ankle sprain (LAS) without consideration of measurement properties (MP). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate MPs of assessments for the evaluation of individuals with a history of LAS.


This systematic review of measurement properties follows PRISMA and COSMIN guidelines. Databases Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and SPORTDiscus were searched for eligible studies (last search: July 2022). Studies on MP of specific tests and patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) in patients with acute and history of LAS (>4 weeks post injury) were deemed eligible.


Ten studies of acute LAS and 39 studies of history of LAS patients with a total of 3313 participants met the inclusion criteria. Anterior Drawer Test (ADT) in supine position five days post injury and Reverse Anterolateral Drawer Test are recommended in acute settings in single studies. In the history of LAS patients, Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) (4 studies) as a PROM, Multiple Hop (3 studies) and Star Excursion Balance Tests (SEBT) (3 studies) for dynamic postural balance testing showed good MPs. No studies investigated pain, physical activity level and gait. Only single studies reported on swelling, range of motion, strength, arthrokinematics, and static postural balance. Limited data existed on responsiveness of the tests in both subgroups.


There was good evidence to support the use of CAIT as PROM, Multiple Hop, and SEBT for dynamic postural balance testing. Insufficient evidence exists in relation to test responsiveness, especially in the acute situation. Future research should assess MPs of assessments of other impairments associated with LAS.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0280388
Pages (from-to)1-36
Number of pages36
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 22 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Schurz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


  • Ankle injury
  • Assessments
  • Chronic ankle instability
  • Impairment-based assessment
  • Lateral ankle sprain
  • Measurement properties
  • Patient reported outcome measurements
  • Humans
  • Sprains and Strains
  • Ankle
  • Ankle Joint
  • Ankle Injuries
  • Lower Extremity
  • Joint Instability
  • Postural Balance


Dive into the research topics of 'Impairment-based assessments for patients with lateral ankle sprain: A systematic review of measurement properties'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this