Impact of cooking on vitamin D 3 and 25(OH)D 3 content of pork products

H R Neill, C I R Gill, E J McDonald, W C McRoberts, R Loy, L K Pourshahidi

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2 Citations (Scopus)
143 Downloads (Pure)


Little is known regarding the impact of cooking on vitamin D content in pork, despite meat being a major contributor to vitamin D intakes. This paper investigated the effect of household cooking (pan-fry/roast/grill/sous-vide/sauté), on the vitamin D 3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3) concentration/retention in pork loin, mince and sausages. We hypothesised that vitamin D concentrations would be higher in cooked vs raw pork, and retention would differ between products. Cooking significantly increased vitamin D 3 (+49 %) and 25(OH)D 3 (+33 %) concentrations. All cooked loin vitamin D 3 concentrations were significantly lower than mince/sausage. Vitamin D 3 retention was > 100 % for all samples (102–135 %), except sauté mince (99 %) which still did not differ significantly from 100 % retention. Sous-vide cooking resulted in the highest vitamin D 3 retention (135 %). Likely owing to water/fat loss, household cooking of pork results in favourable retention of vitamin D 3 and 25(OH)D 3. The type of pork product has greater influence than cooking method.

Original languageEnglish
Article number133839
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalFood Chemistry
Early online date2 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 15 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded as part of a Department for the Economy (DfE; Northern Ireland) Co-operative Awards in Science and Technology (CAST) PhD studentship, supported by Devenish Nutrition Limited. The authors wish to thank Dr David Farrell and Stewart Floyd from AFBI for their respective assistance with the study design and support during analyses.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


  • Mince
  • Cholecalciferol
  • Heat
  • Retention
  • Sausage
  • Loin


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