Impact of a novel spray-chilling system on surface microflora, water activity and weight loss during beef carcass chilling

K.J. Kinsella, J.J. Sheridan, T.A. Rowe, F. Butler, A. Delgado, A. Quispe-Ramirez, I.S. Blair, D.A. McDowell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    26 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Commercially slaughtered and dressed beef carcass sides (n=30) were followed through a standard commercial chill unit fitted with a new “Jasca” air humidification system adjusted to provide intermittent water spraying of carcass sides (spray cycle 2 min on, 1 min off) for 15 h. Immediately after dressing, and after 24 h in the chill unit, the surface water activity, and the weight of each side was measured, and 5 cm2 samples were recovered from four locations, i.e. rump, flank, brisket and neck on the surface of each side. These samples, and similar samples from control sides (n=30) processed in a standard commercial chill unit, were subjected to microbiological examination by direct and resuscitation counts on plate count agar (PCA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA). No significant differences were observed between bacterial numbers on test and control samples on each of the above agars, at each sample point/occasion. Comparison of direct and resuscitation counts suggested the presence of substantial numbers of injured cells, at both stages (pre- and post-chill), on test and control sides. After 24 h in chill units, test sides exhibited an average weight loss of 1.36% (±0.36%), which is significantly less (P
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages483-490
    JournalFood Microbiology
    Volume23
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006

    Fingerprint

    Chills
    beef carcasses
    water activity
    Weight Loss
    weight loss
    microorganisms
    agar
    Agar
    Water
    Resuscitation
    sampling
    rump
    testing
    bile
    plate count
    spraying
    neck
    Bandages
    surface water
    Bile

    Cite this

    Kinsella, K. J., Sheridan, J. J., Rowe, T. A., Butler, F., Delgado, A., Quispe-Ramirez, A., ... McDowell, D. A. (2006). Impact of a novel spray-chilling system on surface microflora, water activity and weight loss during beef carcass chilling. Food Microbiology, 23(5), 483-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2005.05.013
    Kinsella, K.J. ; Sheridan, J.J. ; Rowe, T.A. ; Butler, F. ; Delgado, A. ; Quispe-Ramirez, A. ; Blair, I.S. ; McDowell, D.A. / Impact of a novel spray-chilling system on surface microflora, water activity and weight loss during beef carcass chilling. In: Food Microbiology. 2006 ; Vol. 23, No. 5. pp. 483-490.
    @article{603675f7401d446cbbcea4f24432860f,
    title = "Impact of a novel spray-chilling system on surface microflora, water activity and weight loss during beef carcass chilling",
    abstract = "Commercially slaughtered and dressed beef carcass sides (n=30) were followed through a standard commercial chill unit fitted with a new “Jasca” air humidification system adjusted to provide intermittent water spraying of carcass sides (spray cycle 2 min on, 1 min off) for 15 h. Immediately after dressing, and after 24 h in the chill unit, the surface water activity, and the weight of each side was measured, and 5 cm2 samples were recovered from four locations, i.e. rump, flank, brisket and neck on the surface of each side. These samples, and similar samples from control sides (n=30) processed in a standard commercial chill unit, were subjected to microbiological examination by direct and resuscitation counts on plate count agar (PCA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA). No significant differences were observed between bacterial numbers on test and control samples on each of the above agars, at each sample point/occasion. Comparison of direct and resuscitation counts suggested the presence of substantial numbers of injured cells, at both stages (pre- and post-chill), on test and control sides. After 24 h in chill units, test sides exhibited an average weight loss of 1.36{\%} (±0.36{\%}), which is significantly less (P",
    author = "K.J. Kinsella and J.J. Sheridan and T.A. Rowe and F. Butler and A. Delgado and A. Quispe-Ramirez and I.S. Blair and D.A. McDowell",
    note = "Reference text: Allen, D.M., Hunt, M.C., Luchiari Filho, A., Danler, R.J., Goll, S.J., 1987. Effects of spray chilling and carcass spacing on beef carcass cooler shrink and grade factors. J. An. Sci. 64, 165–170. Anonymous, 2001. Commission Decision of 8th June 2001 laying down rules for the regular checks on the general hygiene carried out by operators in establishments according to Directive 64/433/EEC on health conditions for the production and marketing of fresh meat, and Directive 71/118/EEC on health problems affecting the production and placing on the market of fresh poultry meat. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L 165/48. Anonymous, 2004. Draft 10 of Commission Regulation on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. In: Commission of the European Communities (2 Criteria Indicating the Acceptability of the process), pp. 25–26. Dorsa, W.J., Cutter, C.N., Siragusa, G.R., Koohmaraie, M., 1996. Microbial decontamination of beef and sheep carcasses by steam, hot water spray washes, and a steam-vacuum sanitizer. J. Food Prot. 59, 127–135. Gill, C.O., 1986. The control of microbial spoilage in fresh meat. In: Pearson, A.M., Dutson, T.R. (Eds.), Advances in Meat Research, vol. 2. Van Nostrand (Packaging meat for prolonged chilled storage. The Captech Process, Br. Food J. 91, 11–15). Gill, C.O., 2000. HACCP in primary processing: red meat. In: Martyn, B. (Ed.), HACCP in the Meat Industry. Moorhead Publishing Company, CRC Press, Cambridge, UK, Boca Raton, pp. 81–122. Gill, C.O., Jones, T., 1999. The microbiological effects of breaking operations on hanging beef carcass sides. Food Res. Int. 32, 453–459. Gill, C.O., Jones, T., 2000. Microbiological sampling of carcasses by excision or swabbing. J. Food Prot. 2, 167–173. Gill, C.O., Badoni, M., McGinnis, J.C., 2001. Microbiological sampling of meat cuts and manufactured beef by excision or swabbing. J. Food Prot. 64, 325–334. Greer, G.G., Dilts, B.D., 1988. Bacteriology and retail case life of spray-chilled pork. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 3, 295–299. Greer, G.G., Jones, S.D.M., Dilts, B.D., Robertson, W.M., 1990. Effect of spray-chilling on the quality, bacteriology and case life of aged carcasses and vacuum packaged beef. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 1, 82–86. Hamby, P.L., Savell, J.W., Acuff, G.R., Vanderzant, C., Cross, H.R., 1987. Spray-chilling and carcass decontamination systems using lactic and acetic acid. Meat Sci. 21, 1–14. Heitter, E.F., 1975. Clor-chil. Proceedings in the Meat Industry Research Conference. American Meat Institution Foundation, Chicago, IL, pp. 31–32. Hurst, A., 1977. Bacterial injury: a review. Can. J. Microbiol. 8, 936–944. Jones, P.G., Inouye, M., 1994. The cold-shock response—a hot topic. Mol. Microbiol. 11, 811–818. Jones, S.D.M., Robertson, W.M., 1988. The effects of spray-chilling carcasses on the shrinkage and quality of beef. Meat Sci. 24, 177–188. Kilsby, D.C., Pugh, M.E., 1981. The relevance of the distribution of micro-organisms within batches of food for the control of microbiological hazards from foods. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 51, 345–354. Kowalski, W.J., Bahnfleth, W., 1998. Airborne respiratory diseases and mechanical systems for control of microbes. In: Heating/ Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering [HPAC]. Langan, J.W., Brennan, K.A., 2003. Guidance note on the implementation of the microbiological testing procedures and interpretation of results as required by Europaen Communities [Fresh Meat and Poultry Checks on General Hygiene Regulations 2003]. Teagasc, The National Food Centre. McEvoy, J.M., Sheridan, J.J., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A., 2004. Microbial contamination on beef in relation to hygiene assessment based on criteria used in EU Decision 2001/471/EC. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 92, 217–225. Pearce, R.A., Bolton, D.J., 2005. Excision versus sponge swabbing—a comparison of methods for the microbiological sampling of beef, pork and lamb carcasses. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98, 896–900. Ray, B., 1986. Impact of bacterial injury and repair in food Microbiology: its past, present and future. J. Food Prot. 49, 651–655. Scott, W.J., Vickery, J.R., 1939. Investigations on chilled beef 11. Cooling and storage in the meat works. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin No.129, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1–68. Shadbolt, C.T., Ross, T., McMeekin, T.A., 1999. Nonthermal death of Escherichia coli. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 49, 129–138. Sheridan, J.J., 2004. Decontamination of carcasses. In: , Encyclopaedia of Meat, vol. 1. Elsevier Ltd, Amsterdam, pp. 389–396. Sheridan, J.J., Sherington, J., 1984. The relationship of bloom to washing, bacterial numbers and animal type (cows, heifers and steers) in beef carcasses. 30th European Meeting of Meat Research Workers, Bristol, UK, pp. 83–84. Strydom, P.E., Buys, E.M., 1995. The effects of spray-chilling on carcass mass loss and surface associated bacteriology. Meat Sci. 39, 265–276. Yu, S., Bolton, D., Laubach, C., Kline, P., Oser, A., Palumbo, S.A., 1999. Effect of dehairing operations on microbiological quality of swine carcasses. J. Food Prot. 12, 1478–1481.",
    year = "2006",
    doi = "10.1016/j.fm.2005.05.013",
    language = "English",
    volume = "23",
    pages = "483--490",
    journal = "Food Microbiology",
    issn = "0740-0020",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "5",

    }

    Kinsella, KJ, Sheridan, JJ, Rowe, TA, Butler, F, Delgado, A, Quispe-Ramirez, A, Blair, IS & McDowell, DA 2006, 'Impact of a novel spray-chilling system on surface microflora, water activity and weight loss during beef carcass chilling', Food Microbiology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 483-490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2005.05.013

    Impact of a novel spray-chilling system on surface microflora, water activity and weight loss during beef carcass chilling. / Kinsella, K.J.; Sheridan, J.J.; Rowe, T.A.; Butler, F.; Delgado, A.; Quispe-Ramirez, A.; Blair, I.S.; McDowell, D.A.

    In: Food Microbiology, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2006, p. 483-490.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Impact of a novel spray-chilling system on surface microflora, water activity and weight loss during beef carcass chilling

    AU - Kinsella, K.J.

    AU - Sheridan, J.J.

    AU - Rowe, T.A.

    AU - Butler, F.

    AU - Delgado, A.

    AU - Quispe-Ramirez, A.

    AU - Blair, I.S.

    AU - McDowell, D.A.

    N1 - Reference text: Allen, D.M., Hunt, M.C., Luchiari Filho, A., Danler, R.J., Goll, S.J., 1987. Effects of spray chilling and carcass spacing on beef carcass cooler shrink and grade factors. J. An. Sci. 64, 165–170. Anonymous, 2001. Commission Decision of 8th June 2001 laying down rules for the regular checks on the general hygiene carried out by operators in establishments according to Directive 64/433/EEC on health conditions for the production and marketing of fresh meat, and Directive 71/118/EEC on health problems affecting the production and placing on the market of fresh poultry meat. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L 165/48. Anonymous, 2004. Draft 10 of Commission Regulation on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. In: Commission of the European Communities (2 Criteria Indicating the Acceptability of the process), pp. 25–26. Dorsa, W.J., Cutter, C.N., Siragusa, G.R., Koohmaraie, M., 1996. Microbial decontamination of beef and sheep carcasses by steam, hot water spray washes, and a steam-vacuum sanitizer. J. Food Prot. 59, 127–135. Gill, C.O., 1986. The control of microbial spoilage in fresh meat. In: Pearson, A.M., Dutson, T.R. (Eds.), Advances in Meat Research, vol. 2. Van Nostrand (Packaging meat for prolonged chilled storage. The Captech Process, Br. Food J. 91, 11–15). Gill, C.O., 2000. HACCP in primary processing: red meat. In: Martyn, B. (Ed.), HACCP in the Meat Industry. Moorhead Publishing Company, CRC Press, Cambridge, UK, Boca Raton, pp. 81–122. Gill, C.O., Jones, T., 1999. The microbiological effects of breaking operations on hanging beef carcass sides. Food Res. Int. 32, 453–459. Gill, C.O., Jones, T., 2000. Microbiological sampling of carcasses by excision or swabbing. J. Food Prot. 2, 167–173. Gill, C.O., Badoni, M., McGinnis, J.C., 2001. Microbiological sampling of meat cuts and manufactured beef by excision or swabbing. J. Food Prot. 64, 325–334. Greer, G.G., Dilts, B.D., 1988. Bacteriology and retail case life of spray-chilled pork. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 3, 295–299. Greer, G.G., Jones, S.D.M., Dilts, B.D., Robertson, W.M., 1990. Effect of spray-chilling on the quality, bacteriology and case life of aged carcasses and vacuum packaged beef. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 1, 82–86. Hamby, P.L., Savell, J.W., Acuff, G.R., Vanderzant, C., Cross, H.R., 1987. Spray-chilling and carcass decontamination systems using lactic and acetic acid. Meat Sci. 21, 1–14. Heitter, E.F., 1975. Clor-chil. Proceedings in the Meat Industry Research Conference. American Meat Institution Foundation, Chicago, IL, pp. 31–32. Hurst, A., 1977. Bacterial injury: a review. Can. J. Microbiol. 8, 936–944. Jones, P.G., Inouye, M., 1994. The cold-shock response—a hot topic. Mol. Microbiol. 11, 811–818. Jones, S.D.M., Robertson, W.M., 1988. The effects of spray-chilling carcasses on the shrinkage and quality of beef. Meat Sci. 24, 177–188. Kilsby, D.C., Pugh, M.E., 1981. The relevance of the distribution of micro-organisms within batches of food for the control of microbiological hazards from foods. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 51, 345–354. Kowalski, W.J., Bahnfleth, W., 1998. Airborne respiratory diseases and mechanical systems for control of microbes. In: Heating/ Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering [HPAC]. Langan, J.W., Brennan, K.A., 2003. Guidance note on the implementation of the microbiological testing procedures and interpretation of results as required by Europaen Communities [Fresh Meat and Poultry Checks on General Hygiene Regulations 2003]. Teagasc, The National Food Centre. McEvoy, J.M., Sheridan, J.J., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A., 2004. Microbial contamination on beef in relation to hygiene assessment based on criteria used in EU Decision 2001/471/EC. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 92, 217–225. Pearce, R.A., Bolton, D.J., 2005. Excision versus sponge swabbing—a comparison of methods for the microbiological sampling of beef, pork and lamb carcasses. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98, 896–900. Ray, B., 1986. Impact of bacterial injury and repair in food Microbiology: its past, present and future. J. Food Prot. 49, 651–655. Scott, W.J., Vickery, J.R., 1939. Investigations on chilled beef 11. Cooling and storage in the meat works. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin No.129, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1–68. Shadbolt, C.T., Ross, T., McMeekin, T.A., 1999. Nonthermal death of Escherichia coli. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 49, 129–138. Sheridan, J.J., 2004. Decontamination of carcasses. In: , Encyclopaedia of Meat, vol. 1. Elsevier Ltd, Amsterdam, pp. 389–396. Sheridan, J.J., Sherington, J., 1984. The relationship of bloom to washing, bacterial numbers and animal type (cows, heifers and steers) in beef carcasses. 30th European Meeting of Meat Research Workers, Bristol, UK, pp. 83–84. Strydom, P.E., Buys, E.M., 1995. The effects of spray-chilling on carcass mass loss and surface associated bacteriology. Meat Sci. 39, 265–276. Yu, S., Bolton, D., Laubach, C., Kline, P., Oser, A., Palumbo, S.A., 1999. Effect of dehairing operations on microbiological quality of swine carcasses. J. Food Prot. 12, 1478–1481.

    PY - 2006

    Y1 - 2006

    N2 - Commercially slaughtered and dressed beef carcass sides (n=30) were followed through a standard commercial chill unit fitted with a new “Jasca” air humidification system adjusted to provide intermittent water spraying of carcass sides (spray cycle 2 min on, 1 min off) for 15 h. Immediately after dressing, and after 24 h in the chill unit, the surface water activity, and the weight of each side was measured, and 5 cm2 samples were recovered from four locations, i.e. rump, flank, brisket and neck on the surface of each side. These samples, and similar samples from control sides (n=30) processed in a standard commercial chill unit, were subjected to microbiological examination by direct and resuscitation counts on plate count agar (PCA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA). No significant differences were observed between bacterial numbers on test and control samples on each of the above agars, at each sample point/occasion. Comparison of direct and resuscitation counts suggested the presence of substantial numbers of injured cells, at both stages (pre- and post-chill), on test and control sides. After 24 h in chill units, test sides exhibited an average weight loss of 1.36% (±0.36%), which is significantly less (P

    AB - Commercially slaughtered and dressed beef carcass sides (n=30) were followed through a standard commercial chill unit fitted with a new “Jasca” air humidification system adjusted to provide intermittent water spraying of carcass sides (spray cycle 2 min on, 1 min off) for 15 h. Immediately after dressing, and after 24 h in the chill unit, the surface water activity, and the weight of each side was measured, and 5 cm2 samples were recovered from four locations, i.e. rump, flank, brisket and neck on the surface of each side. These samples, and similar samples from control sides (n=30) processed in a standard commercial chill unit, were subjected to microbiological examination by direct and resuscitation counts on plate count agar (PCA), MacConkey agar (MAC) and violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA). No significant differences were observed between bacterial numbers on test and control samples on each of the above agars, at each sample point/occasion. Comparison of direct and resuscitation counts suggested the presence of substantial numbers of injured cells, at both stages (pre- and post-chill), on test and control sides. After 24 h in chill units, test sides exhibited an average weight loss of 1.36% (±0.36%), which is significantly less (P

    U2 - 10.1016/j.fm.2005.05.013

    DO - 10.1016/j.fm.2005.05.013

    M3 - Article

    VL - 23

    SP - 483

    EP - 490

    JO - Food Microbiology

    T2 - Food Microbiology

    JF - Food Microbiology

    SN - 0740-0020

    IS - 5

    ER -