Identification of Multiple Pancreatic and Extra-Pancreatic Pathways Underlying the Glucose-Lowering Actions of Acacia arabica Bark in Type-2 Diabetes and Isolation of Active Phytoconstituents

Prawej Ansari, PR Flatt, P Harriott, JMA Hannan, Yasser Abdel-Wahab

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Abstract

Acacia arabica is used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments, including diabetes. This study elucidated the antidiabetic actions of A. arabica bark together with the isolation of bioactive molecules. Insulin secretion and signal transduction were measured using clonal cells and mouse islets. Glucose uptake was assessed using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and in vitro systems assessed additional
glucose-lowering actions. High-fat-fed (HFF) obese rats were used for in vivo evaluation, and phytoconstituents were isolated and characterised by RP-HPLC followed by LC-MS and NMR. Hot-water extract of A. arabica (HWAA) increased insulin release from clonal cells and mouse islets by 1.3–6.8-fold and 1.6–3.2-fold, respectively. Diazoxide, verapamil and calcium-free conditions decreased insulin-secretory activity by 30–42%. In contrast, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), tolbutamide and 30 mM KCl potentiated the insulin-secretory effects. The mechanism of actions of HWAA involved membrane depolarisation and elevation of intracellular Ca2+ together with an increase in glucose uptake by 3T3-L1 adipocytes, inhibition of starch digestion, glucose diffusion, dipeptidyl
peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) enzyme activity and protein glycation. Acute HWAA administration (250 mg/5 mL/kg) enhanced glucose tolerance and plasma insulin in HFF obese rats. Administration of HWAA (250 mg/5 mL/kg) for 9 days improved glucose homeostasis and -cell functions, thereby improving glycaemic control, and circulating insulin. Isolated phytoconstituents, including quercetin and kaempferol, increased insulin secretion in vitro and improved glucose tolerance. The results indicate that HWAA has the potential to treat type 2 diabetes as a dietary supplement or as a source of antidiabetic agents, including quercetin and kaempferol.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1190
Number of pages19
JournalPlants
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jun 2021

Keywords

  • glucose
  • insulin
  • diabetes
  • DPP-IV
  • islets
  • beta cells
  • phytochemistry

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