Hydrogen Safety by Design: Exclusion of Flame Blow-Out from a TPRD

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Onboard hydrogen storage tanks are currently fitted with thermally activated pressure relief devices (TPRDs), enabling hydrogen to blowdown in the event of fire. For release diameters below the critical diameter, the flame from the TPRD may blow-out during a pressure drop. Flame blow-outs pose a safety concern for an indoor or covered environment, e.g., a garage or carpark, where hydrogen can accumulate and deflagrate. This study describes the application of a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate the dynamic flame behaviour from a TPRD designed to exclude its blow-out. The dynamic behaviour replicates a real scenario. Flame behaviour during tank blowdown through two TPRDs with different nozzle geometries is presented. Simulations confirm flame blow-out for a single-diameter TPRD of 0.5 mm during tank blowdown, while the double-diameter nozzle successfully excludes flame blow-out. The pressure at which the flame blow-out process is initiated during blowdown through a single-diameter nozzle was predicted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-292
Number of pages13
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 15 May 2024

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© 2024 by the authors.

Data Access Statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article, further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.


  • blowdown
  • lift-off
  • blow-out
  • TPRD
  • flame stability


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