How heat pumps and thermal energy storage can be used to manage wind power: a study of Ireland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although energy for heating and cooling represents the largest proportion of demand,little progress towards meeting environmental targets has been achieved in thesesectors. The recent rapid progress in integrating renewable energy into the electricitysector however, can help in decarbonising heat by electrification. This paperinvestigates the impacts and benefits of heat electrification in a wind dominated marketby considering two options; with heat pumps, and with direct electric heating, bothoperated with energy storage. The Irish all-island electricity market is used as a casestudy. Modelling results reveal the significant potential of heat pump electrification,delivering at least two and three times less carbon emissions respectively, whencompared with conventional options such as gas or oil for 20% of domestic sector of theAll Ireland market. Heat electrification using direct, resistive heating systems is found tobe the most carbon intensive method. Energy storage systems combined with heatpumps could deliver potentially significant benefits in terms of emissions reductions,efficient market operation and mitigating the impacts of variable renewable energy onbaseload generation. The main barrier to heat electrification in the all island market isthe absence of appropriate policy measures to support relevant technologies.
LanguageEnglish
JournalEnergy
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2018

Fingerprint

Thermal energy
Energy storage
Wind power
Pumps
Electric heating
Heating
Carbon
Hot Temperature
Cooling
Gases

Keywords

  • heat electrification
  • heat pumps
  • direct resistive heating
  • thermal storage
  • electricity market model

Cite this

@article{921f323d7ae4400fa73c693d145120aa,
title = "How heat pumps and thermal energy storage can be used to manage wind power: a study of Ireland",
abstract = "Although energy for heating and cooling represents the largest proportion of demand,little progress towards meeting environmental targets has been achieved in thesesectors. The recent rapid progress in integrating renewable energy into the electricitysector however, can help in decarbonising heat by electrification. This paperinvestigates the impacts and benefits of heat electrification in a wind dominated marketby considering two options; with heat pumps, and with direct electric heating, bothoperated with energy storage. The Irish all-island electricity market is used as a casestudy. Modelling results reveal the significant potential of heat pump electrification,delivering at least two and three times less carbon emissions respectively, whencompared with conventional options such as gas or oil for 20{\%} of domestic sector of theAll Ireland market. Heat electrification using direct, resistive heating systems is found tobe the most carbon intensive method. Energy storage systems combined with heatpumps could deliver potentially significant benefits in terms of emissions reductions,efficient market operation and mitigating the impacts of variable renewable energy onbaseload generation. The main barrier to heat electrification in the all island market isthe absence of appropriate policy measures to support relevant technologies.",
keywords = "heat electrification, heat pumps, direct resistive heating, thermal storage, electricity market model",
author = "Vorushylo Inna and Patrick Keatley and Nikhilkumar Shah and Green Richard and Neil Hewitt",
note = "Reference text: References 1. Akmal M., Fox B., Morrow D. J. and Littler T., {"}Impact of High Penetration of Heat Pumps on Low Voltage Distribution Networks,{"} in PowerTech, Trondheim, 2011. 2. Alva G., Lin Y., Fang G. 2018. {"}An overview of thermal energy storage systems.{"} Energy 144: 341-378. 3. Baringa, {"}Electricity System Analysis - future system benefits from selected DSR scenarios,{"} August 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48551/5759-electricity-system-analysis--future-system-benefit.pdf. [Accessed January 2017]. 4. Bianco V., Scarpa F., Tagliafico L. A., 2015 {"}Long term outlook of primary energy consumption of the Italian thermoelectric sector: Impact of fuel and carbon prices.{"} Energy 2015; 87: 153-164. 5. Bianco V., Scarpa F., Tagliafico L. A, {"}Estimation of primary energy savings by using heat pumps for heating purposes in the residential sector.{"} Applied Thermal Engineering 2017; 114: 938-47. 6. Gan CK, Mancarella P, Pudjianto D and Strbac G, {"}Statistical appraisal of economic design strategies of LV,{"} Electric Power Systems Research, doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2011.02.001, 2011. 7. Commission for Energy Regulation, {"}CER National Smart Metering Programme. Smart Metering High Level Design,{"} Dublin: Commission for Energy Regulation; 2014. Available: https://www.cru.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/CER14046-High-Level-Design.pdf. [cccessed 30 January 2018]. 8. Chiodi A., Gargiulo M., Deane J.P., Lavigne D.,.Rout U. K, {\'O}Gallach{\'o}ir B. P, {"}Modelling the impacts of challenging 2020 non-ETS GHG emissions reduction targets on Ireland′s energy system,{"} Energy Policy, 2013, 62:1438-145 9. Committee on Climate Change, {"}Fourth Carbon Budget Review - part 2. The cost-effective path to the 2050 target,{"} London, Committee on Climate Change; 2013. Available: https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/1785a-CCC_AdviceRep_Singles_1.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 10. Committee on Climate Change, {"}The Fourth Carbon Budget. Reducing emissions through the 2020s,{"} London: Committee on Climate Change; 2010. Available: https://www.theccc.org.uk/archive/aws2/4th{\%}20Budget/CCC_4th-Budget_interactive.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 11. Deane JP, Chiodi A, Gargiulo M, OCallachoir BP, {"}Soft-linking of a power systems model to an energy systems model,{"} Energy, 42; 2012: 303-12 12. Denny E., Tuohy A., Meibom P., Keane A., Flynn D., Mullane A., O'Malley M.. The impact of increased interconnection on electricity systems with large penetrations of wind generation: A case study of Ireland and Great Britain. Energy Policy, 2010; 38: 6946-54. 13. Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, {"}National Renewable Energy Action Plan. Ireland,{"} Dublin: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources; 2009. https://www.dccae.gov.ie/documents/The{\%}20National{\%}20Renewable{\%}20Energy{\%}20Action{\%}20Plan{\%}20(PDF).pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 14. Department of Energy and Climate Change, {"}DECC Fossil fuel price projections,{"} London: Department of Energy and Climate Change; 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/212521/130718_decc-fossil-fuel-price-projections.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 15. Department of Energy and Climate Change, {"}Electricity Generation Costs (December 2013),{"} London: Department of Energy and Climate Change; 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/269888/131217_Electricity_Generation_costs_report_December_2013_Final.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 16. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, {"}Consultation on the potential for extending the natural gas network in Northern Ireland,{"} Belfast: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment; 2011. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/sites/default/files/consultations/deti/extending-natural-gas-network-ni.pdf. [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 17. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, {"}Northern Ireland Strategic Energy Framework,{"} Belfast: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment; 2010 https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/deti/sef{\%}202010.pdf. [Accessed 30 January 2018] 18. Dimplex, {"}The Heatbook,{"} March 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.dimplex.co.uk/sites/default/files/Heat{\%}20Book{\%}2015.pdf. [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 19. EirGrid, SONI, {"}All-Island generation capacity statement 2015 - 2024,{"} 2015. http://www.soni.ltd.uk/media/documents/Operations/CapacityStatements/All{\%}20Island{\%}20Generation{\%}20Capacity{\%}20Statement{\%}202015{\%}20-{\%}202024.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 20. EirGrid {"}Quick Guide to the Integrated Single Electricity Market{"}, 2016. http://www.eirgridgroup.com/__uuid/f110639e-9e21-4d28-b193-ed56ee372362/EirGrid-Group-I-SEM-Quick-Guide.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018] 21. EirGrid, 2017. Celtic interconnection. Project Upate 2017. [Online] Available at: http://www.eirgridgroup.com/site-files/library/EirGrid/Celtic-Interconnector-Project-Update-Brochure.pdf [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 22. EirGrid, SONI, {"}All-Island generation capacity statement 2017 - 2026,{"} 2017. http://www.eirgridgroup.com/site-files/library/EirGrid/4289_EirGrid_GenCapStatement_v9_web.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 23. Element Energy, Frontier Economics.{"}Economic analysis for the Renewable Heat Incentive for Ireland.{"} Cambridge: Element Energy Limited: 2017. Accessed January 15, 2018. https://www.dccae.gov.ie/documents/Economic{\%}20analysis{\%}20for{\%}20the{\%}20RHI{\%}20in{\%}20Ireland.pdf. 24. Energy Saving Trust, {"}Detailed analysis from the second phase of the Energy Saving Trust's heat pump field trial,{"} May 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/225825/analysis_data_second_phase_est_heat_pump_field_trials.pdf. [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 25. EU COMMISSION, {"}An EU Strategy on Heating and Cooling,{"} Brussels: Commission of the European Communities; 2016. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/1_EN_ACT_part1_v14.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 26. Fischer D., Madani H., 2017. {"}On heat pumps in smart grids: A review.{"} Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 70: 342-57. 27. Frontier Economics, ElementEnergy, {"}Pathways to high penetration of heat pumps. Report prepared for the Committee on Climate Change,{"} London: Frontier Economics; 2013. https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Frontier-Economics-Element-Energy-Pathways-to-high-penetration-of-heat-pumps.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 28. Gaffney F., J.P. Deane, {\'O}Gallach{\'o}ir B.P., A 100 year review of electricity policy in Ireland (1916-2015). Energy Policy, 2017; 105: 67-79. 29. Glatzmaier G., {"}Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage,{"} Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-53066, 2011. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/53066.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018] 30. IEA, IRENA, ETSAP, {"}Thermal Energy Storage Technology Brief,{"} January 2013. https://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA-ETSAP{\%}20Tech{\%}20Brief{\%}20E17{\%}20Thermal{\%}20Energy{\%}20Storage.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 31. IPSOS MORI, {"}Consumer Experiences Of Time of Use Tariffs,{"} 2012. https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/publication/1970-01/Ipsos-MORI-report-on-Consumer-Experiences-Of-Time-Of-Use-Tariffs.pdf [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 32. Green J.P., Smith S.A., and Strbac G., {"}Evaluation of electricity distribution system design strategies,{"} Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEEE Proceedings, 1999; 146: 53 - 60. 33. Keatley P., Shibli A., Hewitt N.J., {"}Estimating power plant start costs in cyclic operation,{"} Applied Energy, 2013; 111: 550-7. 34. Kelly NJ, Cockroft J., {"}Analysis of retrofit air source heat pump performance : results from detailed simulations and comparison to field trial data,{"} Energy and Buildings, 2011; 43: 239-45 35. Luo X., Wang J., Dooner M., Clarke J., {"}Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation,{"} Applied Energy, 2015: 137 5011-536. 36. Mancarella P., C. K. Gan, Strbac G., {"}Evaluation of the impact of electric heat pumps and distributed CHP on LV networks,{"} in IEEE PowerTech, Trondheim, 2011. 37. National Grid, {"}UK Future Energy Scenarios, July 2014{"} Warwick: National Grid plc; 2014. http://fes.nationalgrid.com/media/1298/2014-fes.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 38. Nsanzineza R., O'Connell M., Brinkman G., Milford J. B., {"}Emissions implications of downscaled electricity generation scenarios for the western United States,{"} Energy Policy;109: 601-608 39. Northern Ireland Electricity, {"}SHIFT&SAFE. Making Coleraine's Netwroks Smart,{"} 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.nie.co.uk/documents/Shift-Save-leaflet.aspx. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 40. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, {"}Northern Ireland Census 2011, General Report{"} Belfast: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency; 2015. https://www.nisra.gov.uk/sites/nisra.gov.uk/files/publications/2011-census-general-report.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 41. Richardson, P. {"}Integration of Distributed Energy Resources in Low Voltage Electricity Networks.{"} PhD thesis, College of Engineering and Architecture, UCD, 2012. 42. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, {"}Residental Energy Roadmap,{"} Dublin: Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland; 2011. https://www.seai.ie/resources/publications/Residential-Energy-Roadmap.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 43. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, {"}SmartGrid Roadmap,{"} Dublin: Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland; 2011. https://www.seai.ie/resources/publications/Smartgrid-Roadmap.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 44. Single Electricity Market Committee, {"}DS3 System Services Procurement Design and Emerging Thinking. Decision paper,{"} 19 December 2014. https://www.semcommittee.com/sites/semcommittee.com/files/media-files/SEM-14-108{\%}20DS3{\%}20System{\%}20Services{\%}20Decision{\%}20Paper.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 45. Single Electricity Market Committee, {"}Integrated Single Electricity Market (I-SEM): SEM Committee Decision on High Level Design. Impact Assessment{"}, 17 September 2014 https://www.semcommittee.com/sites/semcommittee.com/files/media-files/SEM-14-085b{\%}20I-SEM{\%}20SEMC{\%}20decision{\%}20on{\%}20HLD{\%}20Impact{\%}20Assessment.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 46. Strbac, G. C. Kim Gan, M. Aunedi, V. Stanojevic, P. Djapic, J. Dejvises et al. {"}Benefits of Advanced Smart Metering for Demand Response based Control of Distribution Networks,{"} 2010. http://www.energynetworks.org/assets/files/electricity/futures/smart_meters/Smart_Metering_Benerfits_Summary_ENASEDGImperial_100409.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 47. Strbac G., Aunedi M., Pudjianto D., Djapic P., Teng F., Sturt A et al. {"}Strategic Assessment of the Role and Value of Energy Storage Systems in the UK Low Carbon Energy Future, Report for the Carbon Trust{"} London: Imperial College London; 2012. https://www.carbontrust.com/media/129310/energy-storage-systems-role-value-strategic-assessment.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018] 48. Vorushylo I., Keatley P., Hewitt N. J., {"}Most promising flexible generators for the wind dominated market,{"} Energy Policy, 96; 2016: 564-75. 49. Zhang H., Baeyens J., C{\'a}ceres G., Degr{\`e}ve J., Lv Y.. 2016. {"}Thermal energy storage: Recent developments and practical aspects.{"} Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 53: 1-40. 50. Zhao H, Wu Q, Hu S, Xu H, Rasmussen CN, {"}Review of energy storage system for wind power integration support,{"} Applied Energy, 2015; 137: 545-54.",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.001",
language = "English",
journal = "Energy",
issn = "0360-5442",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - How heat pumps and thermal energy storage can be used to manage wind power: a study of Ireland

AU - Inna, Vorushylo

AU - Keatley, Patrick

AU - Shah, Nikhilkumar

AU - Richard, Green

AU - Hewitt, Neil

N1 - Reference text: References 1. Akmal M., Fox B., Morrow D. J. and Littler T., "Impact of High Penetration of Heat Pumps on Low Voltage Distribution Networks," in PowerTech, Trondheim, 2011. 2. Alva G., Lin Y., Fang G. 2018. "An overview of thermal energy storage systems." Energy 144: 341-378. 3. Baringa, "Electricity System Analysis - future system benefits from selected DSR scenarios," August 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/48551/5759-electricity-system-analysis--future-system-benefit.pdf. [Accessed January 2017]. 4. Bianco V., Scarpa F., Tagliafico L. A., 2015 "Long term outlook of primary energy consumption of the Italian thermoelectric sector: Impact of fuel and carbon prices." Energy 2015; 87: 153-164. 5. Bianco V., Scarpa F., Tagliafico L. A, "Estimation of primary energy savings by using heat pumps for heating purposes in the residential sector." Applied Thermal Engineering 2017; 114: 938-47. 6. Gan CK, Mancarella P, Pudjianto D and Strbac G, "Statistical appraisal of economic design strategies of LV," Electric Power Systems Research, doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2011.02.001, 2011. 7. Commission for Energy Regulation, "CER National Smart Metering Programme. Smart Metering High Level Design," Dublin: Commission for Energy Regulation; 2014. Available: https://www.cru.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/CER14046-High-Level-Design.pdf. [cccessed 30 January 2018]. 8. Chiodi A., Gargiulo M., Deane J.P., Lavigne D.,.Rout U. K, ÓGallachóir B. P, "Modelling the impacts of challenging 2020 non-ETS GHG emissions reduction targets on Ireland′s energy system," Energy Policy, 2013, 62:1438-145 9. Committee on Climate Change, "Fourth Carbon Budget Review - part 2. The cost-effective path to the 2050 target," London, Committee on Climate Change; 2013. Available: https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/1785a-CCC_AdviceRep_Singles_1.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 10. Committee on Climate Change, "The Fourth Carbon Budget. Reducing emissions through the 2020s," London: Committee on Climate Change; 2010. Available: https://www.theccc.org.uk/archive/aws2/4th%20Budget/CCC_4th-Budget_interactive.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 11. Deane JP, Chiodi A, Gargiulo M, OCallachoir BP, "Soft-linking of a power systems model to an energy systems model," Energy, 42; 2012: 303-12 12. Denny E., Tuohy A., Meibom P., Keane A., Flynn D., Mullane A., O'Malley M.. The impact of increased interconnection on electricity systems with large penetrations of wind generation: A case study of Ireland and Great Britain. Energy Policy, 2010; 38: 6946-54. 13. Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources, "National Renewable Energy Action Plan. Ireland," Dublin: Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources; 2009. https://www.dccae.gov.ie/documents/The%20National%20Renewable%20Energy%20Action%20Plan%20(PDF).pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 14. Department of Energy and Climate Change, "DECC Fossil fuel price projections," London: Department of Energy and Climate Change; 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/212521/130718_decc-fossil-fuel-price-projections.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 15. Department of Energy and Climate Change, "Electricity Generation Costs (December 2013)," London: Department of Energy and Climate Change; 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/269888/131217_Electricity_Generation_costs_report_December_2013_Final.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 16. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, "Consultation on the potential for extending the natural gas network in Northern Ireland," Belfast: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment; 2011. https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/sites/default/files/consultations/deti/extending-natural-gas-network-ni.pdf. [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 17. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, "Northern Ireland Strategic Energy Framework," Belfast: Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment; 2010 https://www.economy-ni.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/deti/sef%202010.pdf. [Accessed 30 January 2018] 18. Dimplex, "The Heatbook," March 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.dimplex.co.uk/sites/default/files/Heat%20Book%2015.pdf. [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 19. EirGrid, SONI, "All-Island generation capacity statement 2015 - 2024," 2015. http://www.soni.ltd.uk/media/documents/Operations/CapacityStatements/All%20Island%20Generation%20Capacity%20Statement%202015%20-%202024.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 20. EirGrid "Quick Guide to the Integrated Single Electricity Market", 2016. http://www.eirgridgroup.com/__uuid/f110639e-9e21-4d28-b193-ed56ee372362/EirGrid-Group-I-SEM-Quick-Guide.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018] 21. EirGrid, 2017. Celtic interconnection. Project Upate 2017. [Online] Available at: http://www.eirgridgroup.com/site-files/library/EirGrid/Celtic-Interconnector-Project-Update-Brochure.pdf [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 22. EirGrid, SONI, "All-Island generation capacity statement 2017 - 2026," 2017. http://www.eirgridgroup.com/site-files/library/EirGrid/4289_EirGrid_GenCapStatement_v9_web.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 23. Element Energy, Frontier Economics."Economic analysis for the Renewable Heat Incentive for Ireland." Cambridge: Element Energy Limited: 2017. Accessed January 15, 2018. https://www.dccae.gov.ie/documents/Economic%20analysis%20for%20the%20RHI%20in%20Ireland.pdf. 24. Energy Saving Trust, "Detailed analysis from the second phase of the Energy Saving Trust's heat pump field trial," May 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/225825/analysis_data_second_phase_est_heat_pump_field_trials.pdf. [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 25. EU COMMISSION, "An EU Strategy on Heating and Cooling," Brussels: Commission of the European Communities; 2016. https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/1_EN_ACT_part1_v14.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 26. Fischer D., Madani H., 2017. "On heat pumps in smart grids: A review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 70: 342-57. 27. Frontier Economics, ElementEnergy, "Pathways to high penetration of heat pumps. Report prepared for the Committee on Climate Change," London: Frontier Economics; 2013. https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Frontier-Economics-Element-Energy-Pathways-to-high-penetration-of-heat-pumps.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 28. Gaffney F., J.P. Deane, ÓGallachóir B.P., A 100 year review of electricity policy in Ireland (1916-2015). Energy Policy, 2017; 105: 67-79. 29. Glatzmaier G., "Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage," Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-53066, 2011. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/53066.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018] 30. IEA, IRENA, ETSAP, "Thermal Energy Storage Technology Brief," January 2013. https://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA-ETSAP%20Tech%20Brief%20E17%20Thermal%20Energy%20Storage.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 31. IPSOS MORI, "Consumer Experiences Of Time of Use Tariffs," 2012. https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/publication/1970-01/Ipsos-MORI-report-on-Consumer-Experiences-Of-Time-Of-Use-Tariffs.pdf [Accessed 30 January 2018]. 32. Green J.P., Smith S.A., and Strbac G., "Evaluation of electricity distribution system design strategies," Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEEE Proceedings, 1999; 146: 53 - 60. 33. Keatley P., Shibli A., Hewitt N.J., "Estimating power plant start costs in cyclic operation," Applied Energy, 2013; 111: 550-7. 34. Kelly NJ, Cockroft J., "Analysis of retrofit air source heat pump performance : results from detailed simulations and comparison to field trial data," Energy and Buildings, 2011; 43: 239-45 35. Luo X., Wang J., Dooner M., Clarke J., "Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation," Applied Energy, 2015: 137 5011-536. 36. Mancarella P., C. K. Gan, Strbac G., "Evaluation of the impact of electric heat pumps and distributed CHP on LV networks," in IEEE PowerTech, Trondheim, 2011. 37. National Grid, "UK Future Energy Scenarios, July 2014" Warwick: National Grid plc; 2014. http://fes.nationalgrid.com/media/1298/2014-fes.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 38. Nsanzineza R., O'Connell M., Brinkman G., Milford J. B., "Emissions implications of downscaled electricity generation scenarios for the western United States," Energy Policy;109: 601-608 39. Northern Ireland Electricity, "SHIFT&SAFE. Making Coleraine's Netwroks Smart," 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.nie.co.uk/documents/Shift-Save-leaflet.aspx. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 40. Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, "Northern Ireland Census 2011, General Report" Belfast: Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency; 2015. https://www.nisra.gov.uk/sites/nisra.gov.uk/files/publications/2011-census-general-report.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 41. Richardson, P. "Integration of Distributed Energy Resources in Low Voltage Electricity Networks." PhD thesis, College of Engineering and Architecture, UCD, 2012. 42. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, "Residental Energy Roadmap," Dublin: Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland; 2011. https://www.seai.ie/resources/publications/Residential-Energy-Roadmap.pdf. [accessed 30 January 2018]. 43. Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland, "SmartGrid Roadmap," Dublin: Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland; 2011. https://www.seai.ie/resources/publications/Smartgrid-Roadmap.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 44. Single Electricity Market Committee, "DS3 System Services Procurement Design and Emerging Thinking. Decision paper," 19 December 2014. https://www.semcommittee.com/sites/semcommittee.com/files/media-files/SEM-14-108%20DS3%20System%20Services%20Decision%20Paper.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 45. Single Electricity Market Committee, "Integrated Single Electricity Market (I-SEM): SEM Committee Decision on High Level Design. Impact Assessment", 17 September 2014 https://www.semcommittee.com/sites/semcommittee.com/files/media-files/SEM-14-085b%20I-SEM%20SEMC%20decision%20on%20HLD%20Impact%20Assessment.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 46. Strbac, G. C. Kim Gan, M. Aunedi, V. Stanojevic, P. Djapic, J. Dejvises et al. "Benefits of Advanced Smart Metering for Demand Response based Control of Distribution Networks," 2010. http://www.energynetworks.org/assets/files/electricity/futures/smart_meters/Smart_Metering_Benerfits_Summary_ENASEDGImperial_100409.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018]. 47. Strbac G., Aunedi M., Pudjianto D., Djapic P., Teng F., Sturt A et al. "Strategic Assessment of the Role and Value of Energy Storage Systems in the UK Low Carbon Energy Future, Report for the Carbon Trust" London: Imperial College London; 2012. https://www.carbontrust.com/media/129310/energy-storage-systems-role-value-strategic-assessment.pdf [accessed 30 January 2018] 48. Vorushylo I., Keatley P., Hewitt N. J., "Most promising flexible generators for the wind dominated market," Energy Policy, 96; 2016: 564-75. 49. Zhang H., Baeyens J., Cáceres G., Degrève J., Lv Y.. 2016. "Thermal energy storage: Recent developments and practical aspects." Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 53: 1-40. 50. Zhao H, Wu Q, Hu S, Xu H, Rasmussen CN, "Review of energy storage system for wind power integration support," Applied Energy, 2015; 137: 545-54.

PY - 2018/8/15

Y1 - 2018/8/15

N2 - Although energy for heating and cooling represents the largest proportion of demand,little progress towards meeting environmental targets has been achieved in thesesectors. The recent rapid progress in integrating renewable energy into the electricitysector however, can help in decarbonising heat by electrification. This paperinvestigates the impacts and benefits of heat electrification in a wind dominated marketby considering two options; with heat pumps, and with direct electric heating, bothoperated with energy storage. The Irish all-island electricity market is used as a casestudy. Modelling results reveal the significant potential of heat pump electrification,delivering at least two and three times less carbon emissions respectively, whencompared with conventional options such as gas or oil for 20% of domestic sector of theAll Ireland market. Heat electrification using direct, resistive heating systems is found tobe the most carbon intensive method. Energy storage systems combined with heatpumps could deliver potentially significant benefits in terms of emissions reductions,efficient market operation and mitigating the impacts of variable renewable energy onbaseload generation. The main barrier to heat electrification in the all island market isthe absence of appropriate policy measures to support relevant technologies.

AB - Although energy for heating and cooling represents the largest proportion of demand,little progress towards meeting environmental targets has been achieved in thesesectors. The recent rapid progress in integrating renewable energy into the electricitysector however, can help in decarbonising heat by electrification. This paperinvestigates the impacts and benefits of heat electrification in a wind dominated marketby considering two options; with heat pumps, and with direct electric heating, bothoperated with energy storage. The Irish all-island electricity market is used as a casestudy. Modelling results reveal the significant potential of heat pump electrification,delivering at least two and three times less carbon emissions respectively, whencompared with conventional options such as gas or oil for 20% of domestic sector of theAll Ireland market. Heat electrification using direct, resistive heating systems is found tobe the most carbon intensive method. Energy storage systems combined with heatpumps could deliver potentially significant benefits in terms of emissions reductions,efficient market operation and mitigating the impacts of variable renewable energy onbaseload generation. The main barrier to heat electrification in the all island market isthe absence of appropriate policy measures to support relevant technologies.

KW - heat electrification

KW - heat pumps

KW - direct resistive heating

KW - thermal storage

KW - electricity market model

U2 - 10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.001

DO - 10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.001

M3 - Article

JO - Energy

T2 - Energy

JF - Energy

SN - 0360-5442

ER -