High resolution XPS characterization of chemical functionalised MWCNTs and SWCNTs

TIT Okpalugo, P Papakonstantinou, H Murphy, JAD McLaughlin, NMD Brown

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High resolution XPS analysis of chemical functionalised multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) was done with ESCA300 (overall instrument resolution of 0.35 eV). Information to the degree of functionalisation was ascertained by argon ion bombardment of the samples followed by XPS analysis to detect the functional groups, the percentage atomic concentration of various elements present and whether or not the detected functional groups imposed a chemical shift on the CNT atoms. The results show that true chemical functionalisation was achieved and by argon ion bombardment these functional groups can be altered relative to the C 1s carbon atoms of the CNT. The choice of chemicals used for functionalisation, the techniques employed and the types of nanotubes treated are important factors in chemical characterisation. The carbon atom on the nanotube ring to which the functional group (atom) is bonded, the chirality of the CNT, the electronegativity of the functional group, the bond type and whether the CNT is single-wall or multi-wall, or cut (short) could play a role in determining the chemical shift on the CNTs atoms. These investigations are relevant to chemical functionalisation of carbon nanotubes for various applications for example DNA sensors and other biomedical sensors.Copyright: Elsevier 2005
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)153-161
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 2005


  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Chemically modified carbon
  • B. Heat treatment
  • C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
  • D. Functional groups


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