High Precision 3D Printing for Micro to Nano Scale Biomedical and Electronic Devices

Kirsty Muldoon, Yanhua Song, Zeeshan Ahmad, Xing Chen, Ming-Wei Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


Three dimensional printing (3DP), or additive manufacturing, is an exponentially growing process in the fabrication of various technologies with applications in sectors such as electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical and tissue engineering. Micro and nano scale printing is encouraging the innovation of the aforementioned sectors, due to the ability to control design, material and chemical properties at a highly precise level, which is advantageous in creating a high surface area to volume ratio and altering the overall products' mechanical and physical properties. In this review, micro/-nano printing technology, mainly related to lithography, inkjet and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing and their biomedical and electronic applications will be discussed. The current limitations to micro/-nano printing methods will be examined, covering the difficulty in achieving controlled structures at the miniscule micro and nano scale required for specific applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number642
Pages (from-to)1-34
Number of pages34
Issue number4
Early online date18 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished online - 18 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: The authors sincerely acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 82172064 and 81771960).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • biomaterial
  • micro/nano scale printing
  • electronics
  • 3D printing
  • micro
  • nano scale printing


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