Three dimensional printing (3DP), or additive manufacturing, is an exponentially growing process in the fabrication of various technologies with applications in sectors such as electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical and tissue engineering. Micro and nano scale printing is encouraging the innovation of the aforementioned sectors, due to the ability to control design, material and chemical properties at a highly precise level, which is advantageous in creating a high surface area to volume ratio and altering the overall products' mechanical and physical properties. In this review, micro/-nano printing technology, mainly related to lithography, inkjet and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing and their biomedical and electronic applications will be discussed. The current limitations to micro/-nano printing methods will be examined, covering the difficulty in achieving controlled structures at the miniscule micro and nano scale required for specific applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: The authors sincerely acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 82172064 and 81771960).
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- micro/nano scale printing
- 3D printing
- nano scale printing