High density polyethylene spheres with PCM for domestic hot water applications: Water tank and laboratory scale study

Lidia Navarro, Camila Barreneche, Albert Castell, David A.G. Redpath, Philip Griffiths, Luisa Cabeza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Renewable energy is a potential alternative energy provider with fewer CO2 emissions. However, the mismatch between energy supply and demand is the main disadvantage. Therefore, thermal energy storage becomes an essential technology for enhancing renewable energy efficiency and providing energy supply to the end user. In solar thermal energy systems, hot water tanks are widely used as sensible heat storage technology. Moreover, water storage usually requires large volumes and their improvement has been studied in terms of shape and arrangement. Latent heat storage materials are a potential technology for implementation in water storage tanks in order to reduce their volume and to enhance their efficiency. In this paper, the incorporation of shape high density polyethylene spheres with PCM into domestic hot water tanks is studied. Undesired results obtained in the water tank set-up lead the authors to analyse the PCM leakage in the laboratory. Laboratory analysis pointed out that the PCM-spheres must be thermally cycled and cleaned before their implementation in real application of domestic hot water in order to stabilize the PCM content inside the PCM- spheres
LanguageEnglish
Pages262-267
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
Volume13
Early online date21 Aug 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 21 Aug 2017

Fingerprint

Water tanks
Pulse code modulation
High density polyethylenes
Heat storage
Water
Thermal energy
Latent heat
Energy storage
Energy efficiency

Keywords

  • Thermal energy storage (TES) Water tank
  • Phase change materials (PCM) Encapsulation
  • Stabilization

Cite this

Navarro, Lidia ; Barreneche, Camila ; Castell, Albert ; Redpath, David A.G. ; Griffiths, Philip ; Cabeza, Luisa. / High density polyethylene spheres with PCM for domestic hot water applications: Water tank and laboratory scale study. In: Journal of Energy Storage. 2017 ; Vol. 13. pp. 262-267.
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abstract = "Renewable energy is a potential alternative energy provider with fewer CO2 emissions. However, the mismatch between energy supply and demand is the main disadvantage. Therefore, thermal energy storage becomes an essential technology for enhancing renewable energy efficiency and providing energy supply to the end user. In solar thermal energy systems, hot water tanks are widely used as sensible heat storage technology. Moreover, water storage usually requires large volumes and their improvement has been studied in terms of shape and arrangement. Latent heat storage materials are a potential technology for implementation in water storage tanks in order to reduce their volume and to enhance their efficiency. In this paper, the incorporation of shape high density polyethylene spheres with PCM into domestic hot water tanks is studied. Undesired results obtained in the water tank set-up lead the authors to analyse the PCM leakage in the laboratory. Laboratory analysis pointed out that the PCM-spheres must be thermally cycled and cleaned before their implementation in real application of domestic hot water in order to stabilize the PCM content inside the PCM- spheres",
keywords = "Thermal energy storage (TES) Water tank, Phase change materials (PCM) Encapsulation, Stabilization",
author = "Lidia Navarro and Camila Barreneche and Albert Castell and Redpath, {David A.G.} and Philip Griffiths and Luisa Cabeza",
note = "This output will not be used in the REF 2021 submission Reference text: [1] H.P. Garg, S.C. Mullick, A.K. Bhargava, Solar Thermal Energy Storage, D, Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, 1985. [2] A. Gil, M. Medrano, I. Martorell, A. L{\'a}zaro, P. Dolado, B. Zalba, L.F. Cabeza, State of the art on high temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 1-Concepts, materials and modellization, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14 (1) (2010) 31–55. [3] M. Medrano, A. Gil, I. Martorell, X. Potau, L.F. Cabeza, State of the art on high- temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 2-Case studies, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14 (1) (2010) 56–72. [4] M. Kenisarin, K. Mahkamov, Solar energy storage using phase change materials, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 11 (9) (2007) 1913–1965. [5] D.N.Nkwetta,P.E.Vouillamoz,F.Haghighat,M.ElMankibi,A.Moreau,K.Desai, Phase change materials in hot water tank for shifting peak power demand, Sol. Energy 107 (2014) 628–635. [6] N.Altuntop,M.Arslan,V.Ozceyhan,M.Kanoglu,Effectofobstaclesonthermal stratification in hot water storage tanks, Appl. Therm. Eng. 25 (14–15) (2005) 2285–2298. [7] M. Esen, T. Ayhan, Development of a model compatible with Solar assisted cylindrical energy storage tank and variation of stored energy with time for different phase change materials, Energy Convers. Manage. 37 (12) (1996) 1775–1785. [8] M.A.Fazilati,A.A.Alemrajabi,Phasechangematerialforenhancingsolarwater heater, an experimental approach, Energy Convers. Manage. 71 (2013) 138–145. [9] E. Andersen, S. Furbo, M. Hampel, W. Heidemann, H. M{\"u}ller-Steinhagen, Investigations on stratification devices for hot water heat stores, Int. J. Energy Res. 32 (3) (2008) 255–263. [10] B. Zalba, J.M. Mar{\'i}n, L.F. Cabeza, H. Mehling, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications, Appl. Therm. Eng. 23 (3) (2003) 251–283. [11] A. Shukla, D. Buddhi, R.L. Sawhney, Solar water heaters with phase change material thermal energy storage medium: a review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 13 (8) (2009) 2119–2125. [12] L.F. Cabeza, A. Castell, C. Barreneche, A. De Gracia, A.I. Fern{\'a}ndez, Materials used as PCM in thermal energy storage in buildings: a review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15 (3) (2011) 1675–1695. [13] D.N. Nkwetta, F. Haghighat, Thermal energy storage with phase change material—A state-of-the-art review, Sustain. Cities Soc. 10 (2014) 87–100. [14] L.F. Cabeza, M. Iba{\~n}ez, C. Sol{\'e}, J. Roca, M. Nogu{\'e}s, Experimentation with a water tank including a PCM module, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 90 (2006) 1273–1282. [15] D.N. Nkwetta, P.E. Vouillamoz, F. Haghighat, M. El-Mankibi, A. Moreau, A. Daoud, Impact of phase change materials types and positioning on hot water tank thermal performance: using measured water demand profile, Appl. Therm. Eng. 67 (2014) 460–468. [16] M.M. Farid, A.M. Khudhair, S.A.K. Razack, S. Al-Hallaj, A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications, Energy Convers. Manage. 45 (2004) 1597–1615. [17] M. Esen, A. Durmuş, A. Durmuş, Geometric design of solar-aided latent heat store depending on various parameters and phase change materials, Sol. Energy 62 (1) (1998) 19–28. [18] M. Esen, Thermal performance of a solar-aided latent heat store used for space heating by heat pump, Sol. Energy 69 (1) (2000) 15–25. [19] A. Barba, M. Spiga, Discharge mode for encapsulated PCMs in storage tanks, Sol. Energy 74 (2) (2003) 141–148. [20] J. Wei, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Hirano, H. Takeuchi, Study on a PCM heat storage system for rapid heat supply, Appl. Therm. Eng. 25 (2005) 2903–2920. [21] Y.E. Mili{\'a}n, A. Guti{\'e}rrez, A. Gr{\'a}geda, S. Ushak, A review on encapsulation techniques for inorganic phase change materials and the influence on their thermophysical properties, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 73 (2017) 983–999. [22] Y.P. Zhang, K.P. Lin, R. Yang, H.F. Di, Y. Jiang, Preparation, thermal performance and application of shape-stabilized PCM in energy efficient buildings, Energy Build. 38 (2006) 1262–1269. [23] EN-60584-1, Thermocouple – Part 1: EMF Specifications and Tolerances, (2013) . [24] M. McClenaghan, P. Griffiths, N. Hewitt, D. Redpath, Exergy, energy conversion and domestic hot water storage, Eurotherm Seminar #99, Advances in Thermal Energy Storage, Lleida, Spain (2014). [25] Phase Change Material Products Limited, United Kingdom Ball-ICE A-58. Available in: http://www.pcmproducts.net.",
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High density polyethylene spheres with PCM for domestic hot water applications: Water tank and laboratory scale study. / Navarro, Lidia; Barreneche, Camila; Castell, Albert; Redpath, David A.G.; Griffiths, Philip; Cabeza, Luisa.

In: Journal of Energy Storage, Vol. 13, 21.08.2017, p. 262-267.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - High density polyethylene spheres with PCM for domestic hot water applications: Water tank and laboratory scale study

AU - Navarro, Lidia

AU - Barreneche, Camila

AU - Castell, Albert

AU - Redpath, David A.G.

AU - Griffiths, Philip

AU - Cabeza, Luisa

N1 - This output will not be used in the REF 2021 submission Reference text: [1] H.P. Garg, S.C. Mullick, A.K. Bhargava, Solar Thermal Energy Storage, D, Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, 1985. [2] A. Gil, M. Medrano, I. Martorell, A. Lázaro, P. Dolado, B. Zalba, L.F. Cabeza, State of the art on high temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 1-Concepts, materials and modellization, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14 (1) (2010) 31–55. [3] M. Medrano, A. Gil, I. Martorell, X. Potau, L.F. Cabeza, State of the art on high- temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 2-Case studies, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 14 (1) (2010) 56–72. [4] M. Kenisarin, K. Mahkamov, Solar energy storage using phase change materials, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 11 (9) (2007) 1913–1965. [5] D.N.Nkwetta,P.E.Vouillamoz,F.Haghighat,M.ElMankibi,A.Moreau,K.Desai, Phase change materials in hot water tank for shifting peak power demand, Sol. Energy 107 (2014) 628–635. [6] N.Altuntop,M.Arslan,V.Ozceyhan,M.Kanoglu,Effectofobstaclesonthermal stratification in hot water storage tanks, Appl. Therm. Eng. 25 (14–15) (2005) 2285–2298. [7] M. Esen, T. Ayhan, Development of a model compatible with Solar assisted cylindrical energy storage tank and variation of stored energy with time for different phase change materials, Energy Convers. Manage. 37 (12) (1996) 1775–1785. [8] M.A.Fazilati,A.A.Alemrajabi,Phasechangematerialforenhancingsolarwater heater, an experimental approach, Energy Convers. Manage. 71 (2013) 138–145. [9] E. Andersen, S. Furbo, M. Hampel, W. Heidemann, H. Müller-Steinhagen, Investigations on stratification devices for hot water heat stores, Int. J. Energy Res. 32 (3) (2008) 255–263. [10] B. Zalba, J.M. Marín, L.F. Cabeza, H. Mehling, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications, Appl. Therm. Eng. 23 (3) (2003) 251–283. [11] A. Shukla, D. Buddhi, R.L. Sawhney, Solar water heaters with phase change material thermal energy storage medium: a review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 13 (8) (2009) 2119–2125. [12] L.F. Cabeza, A. Castell, C. Barreneche, A. De Gracia, A.I. Fernández, Materials used as PCM in thermal energy storage in buildings: a review, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15 (3) (2011) 1675–1695. [13] D.N. Nkwetta, F. Haghighat, Thermal energy storage with phase change material—A state-of-the-art review, Sustain. Cities Soc. 10 (2014) 87–100. [14] L.F. Cabeza, M. Ibañez, C. Solé, J. Roca, M. Nogués, Experimentation with a water tank including a PCM module, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 90 (2006) 1273–1282. [15] D.N. Nkwetta, P.E. Vouillamoz, F. Haghighat, M. El-Mankibi, A. Moreau, A. Daoud, Impact of phase change materials types and positioning on hot water tank thermal performance: using measured water demand profile, Appl. Therm. Eng. 67 (2014) 460–468. [16] M.M. Farid, A.M. Khudhair, S.A.K. Razack, S. Al-Hallaj, A review on phase change energy storage: materials and applications, Energy Convers. Manage. 45 (2004) 1597–1615. [17] M. Esen, A. Durmuş, A. Durmuş, Geometric design of solar-aided latent heat store depending on various parameters and phase change materials, Sol. Energy 62 (1) (1998) 19–28. [18] M. Esen, Thermal performance of a solar-aided latent heat store used for space heating by heat pump, Sol. Energy 69 (1) (2000) 15–25. [19] A. Barba, M. Spiga, Discharge mode for encapsulated PCMs in storage tanks, Sol. Energy 74 (2) (2003) 141–148. [20] J. Wei, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Hirano, H. Takeuchi, Study on a PCM heat storage system for rapid heat supply, Appl. Therm. Eng. 25 (2005) 2903–2920. [21] Y.E. Milián, A. Gutiérrez, A. Grágeda, S. Ushak, A review on encapsulation techniques for inorganic phase change materials and the influence on their thermophysical properties, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 73 (2017) 983–999. [22] Y.P. Zhang, K.P. Lin, R. Yang, H.F. Di, Y. Jiang, Preparation, thermal performance and application of shape-stabilized PCM in energy efficient buildings, Energy Build. 38 (2006) 1262–1269. [23] EN-60584-1, Thermocouple – Part 1: EMF Specifications and Tolerances, (2013) . [24] M. McClenaghan, P. Griffiths, N. Hewitt, D. Redpath, Exergy, energy conversion and domestic hot water storage, Eurotherm Seminar #99, Advances in Thermal Energy Storage, Lleida, Spain (2014). [25] Phase Change Material Products Limited, United Kingdom Ball-ICE A-58. Available in: http://www.pcmproducts.net.

PY - 2017/8/21

Y1 - 2017/8/21

N2 - Renewable energy is a potential alternative energy provider with fewer CO2 emissions. However, the mismatch between energy supply and demand is the main disadvantage. Therefore, thermal energy storage becomes an essential technology for enhancing renewable energy efficiency and providing energy supply to the end user. In solar thermal energy systems, hot water tanks are widely used as sensible heat storage technology. Moreover, water storage usually requires large volumes and their improvement has been studied in terms of shape and arrangement. Latent heat storage materials are a potential technology for implementation in water storage tanks in order to reduce their volume and to enhance their efficiency. In this paper, the incorporation of shape high density polyethylene spheres with PCM into domestic hot water tanks is studied. Undesired results obtained in the water tank set-up lead the authors to analyse the PCM leakage in the laboratory. Laboratory analysis pointed out that the PCM-spheres must be thermally cycled and cleaned before their implementation in real application of domestic hot water in order to stabilize the PCM content inside the PCM- spheres

AB - Renewable energy is a potential alternative energy provider with fewer CO2 emissions. However, the mismatch between energy supply and demand is the main disadvantage. Therefore, thermal energy storage becomes an essential technology for enhancing renewable energy efficiency and providing energy supply to the end user. In solar thermal energy systems, hot water tanks are widely used as sensible heat storage technology. Moreover, water storage usually requires large volumes and their improvement has been studied in terms of shape and arrangement. Latent heat storage materials are a potential technology for implementation in water storage tanks in order to reduce their volume and to enhance their efficiency. In this paper, the incorporation of shape high density polyethylene spheres with PCM into domestic hot water tanks is studied. Undesired results obtained in the water tank set-up lead the authors to analyse the PCM leakage in the laboratory. Laboratory analysis pointed out that the PCM-spheres must be thermally cycled and cleaned before their implementation in real application of domestic hot water in order to stabilize the PCM content inside the PCM- spheres

KW - Thermal energy storage (TES) Water tank

KW - Phase change materials (PCM) Encapsulation

KW - Stabilization

U2 - 10.1016/j.est.2017.07.025

DO - 10.1016/j.est.2017.07.025

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 262

EP - 267

JO - Journal of Energy Storage

T2 - Journal of Energy Storage

JF - Journal of Energy Storage

SN - 2352-152X

ER -