Health, Employment, and the Quality of Life in Ireland

Vani Borooah, Donal Dineen, Nicola Lynch

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the Quality of Life (QoL) in Ireland using a sample of 3,500 respondents to the Irish Health Service Executive’s Survey of Consumers’ Experience of the Health Services in Ireland (HSE Survey) carried out between November 2006 and March 2007. Using an ordered logit model, we show that the likelihood of being satisfied with one's QoL is enhanced by social class, income, employment and, above all, by health. The methodology's ability to identify persons who might be "at risk" from a low QoL allows one to speculate on the QoL in Ireland today, in the winter of its discontent, compared to that in 2006-2007 when it basked in the summer of the Celtic Tiger. In present circumstances, one would expect that joblessness would play a much more important role in determining QoL: prior to 2008, unemployment meant a short wait till a suitable job turned up; now it is more likely to involve a protracted search at home or emigration. Furthermore, since unemployment often leads to bad health outcomes, one can be reasonably certain that the QoL associated with a 14 percent unemployment rate will be considerably worse than those witnessed during the halcyon days of the economic boom. This raises the question of how this additional, recession-induced, demand for health services will be met at a time when public expenditure on health in Ireland is to be cut by €1.4 billion over the next four years.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages144-169
    JournalIrish Journal of Sociology
    Volume19
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

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    Ireland
    quality of life
    health
    health service
    unemployment
    public expenditures
    unemployment rate
    emigration
    recession
    social class
    determinants
    income
    human being
    present
    demand
    methodology
    ability
    economics
    experience

    Cite this

    Borooah, V., Dineen, D., & Lynch, N. (2011). Health, Employment, and the Quality of Life in Ireland. Irish Journal of Sociology, 19(2), 144-169.
    Borooah, Vani ; Dineen, Donal ; Lynch, Nicola. / Health, Employment, and the Quality of Life in Ireland. In: Irish Journal of Sociology. 2011 ; Vol. 19, No. 2. pp. 144-169.
    @article{7ec5499c07b7428f8ffe901a436eae03,
    title = "Health, Employment, and the Quality of Life in Ireland",
    abstract = "The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the Quality of Life (QoL) in Ireland using a sample of 3,500 respondents to the Irish Health Service Executive’s Survey of Consumers’ Experience of the Health Services in Ireland (HSE Survey) carried out between November 2006 and March 2007. Using an ordered logit model, we show that the likelihood of being satisfied with one's QoL is enhanced by social class, income, employment and, above all, by health. The methodology's ability to identify persons who might be {"}at risk{"} from a low QoL allows one to speculate on the QoL in Ireland today, in the winter of its discontent, compared to that in 2006-2007 when it basked in the summer of the Celtic Tiger. In present circumstances, one would expect that joblessness would play a much more important role in determining QoL: prior to 2008, unemployment meant a short wait till a suitable job turned up; now it is more likely to involve a protracted search at home or emigration. Furthermore, since unemployment often leads to bad health outcomes, one can be reasonably certain that the QoL associated with a 14 percent unemployment rate will be considerably worse than those witnessed during the halcyon days of the economic boom. This raises the question of how this additional, recession-induced, demand for health services will be met at a time when public expenditure on health in Ireland is to be cut by €1.4 billion over the next four years.",
    author = "Vani Borooah and Donal Dineen and Nicola Lynch",
    note = "Reference text: Acheson D. (1998), Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health, The Stationery Office. London. Amato P.R. (2000), {"}The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children{"}, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62: November 2000, pp 1269–1287. Bj{\"o}nberg, A. and Uhlir M. (2008), Euro Health Consumer Index, Bruxelles: Health Consumer Powerhouse. Black, D., Morris, N., Smith, C., Townsend, P. 1980 Inequalities in Health: a Report of a Research Working Group, London: Department of Health and Social Security. Borooah, V.K. (2001), Logit and Probit: Ordered and Multinomial Models, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Borooah V.K. (2006) How Much Happiness is there in the World? A Cross Country Study”, Applied Economics Letters, 13(8): 483-488. Bruini, L. and Porta, P. (2007), {"}Introduction{"}, in L. Bruini and P. Porta (eds.), Handbook on the Economics of Happiness, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Campbell A. (1981) The Sense of Well-Being in America, New York: McGraw Hill. Campbell , A., Converse, P.E., and Rodgers, W.L. (1976), The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions, New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Cantril H. (1965) The pattern of human concerns, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Chubb, B. (1963), {"}Going About Persecuting Civil Servants: the Role of the Irish Parliamentary Representative{"}, Political Studies, 10, pp. 272-286. Clinch J. P., S. Ferreira, F. Brereton, M. Moro, C. Bullock (2006) Understanding and measuring quality of life in Ireland: sustainability, happiness and well-being, Briefing paper has been prepared to inform the proceedings of the Comhar Conference “Towards Sustainability in the National Development Plan 2007-2013”, 4th to 6th October: http://www.comharsdc.ie/_files/comhar0704.pdf. Dale, A., and Marsh, C., (1993), The 1991 Census User's Guide,. HMSO, London. Diener, E. (1984) {"}Subjective Well-Being{"}, Psychological Bulletin, 95: 542-575. Diener, E. and Seligman, M.E.P., (2004), {"}Beyond Money: Towards an Economy of Well-Being{"}, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, vol. 5, pp. 1-31. DFID (2005), Reducing Poverty by Tackling Social Exclusion, London: Department of International Development. Dolan, P., T., Peasgood, M. White (2008) Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being, Journal of Economic Psychology, 29: 94-122. Drobnič, S., Beham, B., and Pr{\"a}g, P. (2010), {"}Good Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe{"}, Social Indicators Research, 90: 205-225. Easterlin, R.A. (2001) Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory, Economic Journal, 111 (473): 465-484. Eid, M. and Larsen, R.J. (eds) (2008), The Science of Subjective Well-Being, New York: The Guildford Press. Epstein, H. (1998), “Life and Death on the Social Ladder”, The New York Review of Books, Vol. XLV, pp. 26-30. Erikson, R. (1993), {"}Description of Inequality: the Swedish Approach to Welfare Research{"}, in M. Nussbaum and A.K. Sen (eds.), The Quality of Life, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Foote, C., Gerardi, K., Goette, L., and Willen, P. (2009), Reducing Foreclosures: No Easy Answers, Working Paper 15063, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. Frey B.S., A. Stutzer (2002) Happiness and Economics, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Fukuda-Parr, S (2003), {"}The Human Development Paradigm: Operationalizing Sen’s ideas on capabilities{"} Feminist Economics 9: 301 – 317. Gallacher, J. and Gallacher, R. (2011), {"}Are Relationships Good for Your Health{"}, Student British Medical Journal, Student BMJ 2011; 19:d404. Haq, Mahbub ul. 1995. Reflections on Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press. Harvey, B. (2007), Evolution of Health Services and Health Policy in Ireland, Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency. Ingelhart, R., Bas{\'a}{\~n}ez, M., D{\'i}ez-medrano, Halmn, L., Luijkx, R. (2004), Human Beliefs and Values: a cross-cultural sourcebook based on the 990-2002 values surveys, Siglo XXI Editores: Buenos Aires. Kelly, M. (2009), The Irish Credit Bubble, UCD Centre for Economics Research Working Paper Series WP09/32, Dublin: University College Dublin. Kelly, M. (2010), {"}If you thought the bank bailout was bad, wait until the mortgage defaults hit home{"}, The Irish Times, 8 November 2010. Kenny, M.A. (2008), {"}A History of Ireland's Social Insurance{"}, Irish Medical Times, 14 August 2008. Lenoir, Ren{\'e}. 1974/1989. Les Exclus: Un Francais sur Dix. Paris: Editions du Seuil. Mathers, C.D. and Scholfield(1998), {"}The Health Consequences of Unemployment: the evidence{"}, Medical Journal of Australia, 168, pp. 178-182. Marmot, M. ( 2000), “Multilevel Approaches to Understanding Social Determinants” in L. Berkman and I. Kawachi (eds.), Social Epidemiology, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 349-367. Marmot, M. (2004), Status Syndrome: How Our Position on the Social Gradient Affects Longevity and Health, London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Marsh, A. and McKay, S. (1994), Poor Smokers, London: Policy Studies Institute. Marsh, M., Sinnott, R., Garry, J., and Kennedy, F. (2008), The Irish Voter: the nature of electoral competition in the Republic of Ireland, Manchester: Manchester University Press. McGillivray, M. and Clarke, M. (2006), {"}Human Well-being: Concepts and Measures{"}, in M. McGillivray and M. Clarke, (eds), Understanding Human Well-Being, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. National Opinion Poll Research Center (1999) General Social Surveys, 1972-1998: Cumulative Codebook, Chicago: National Opinion Poll Research Center. Newman C., L. Delaney, B. Nolan (2008) A Dynamic Model of the Relationship Between Income and Financial Satisfaction: Evidence from Ireland, The Economic and Social Review, 39: (2) Summer/Autumn, pp. 105–130. OECD (2010), Health at a Glance: Europe 2010, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/health_glance-2010-en Oswald A. (1997) Happiness and Economic Performance, The Economic Journal, 107 (445): 1815-31. Pavot W. (1991) Further Validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: Evidence for the Cross-Method Convergence of Well-Being Measures, Journal of Personality Assessment, 57: 149-61. Richardson, K. (2001), Smoking, Low Income and Health Inequalities: Thematic Discussion Document, Report for Action on Smoking and Health and the Health DevelopmentAgency,http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/documents/smoking_low_income.pdf. Ross, C.E. and Wu, C-L. (1995), {"}The Links Between Education and Health{"}, American Sociological Review, 60: pp. 719-745. Saxena S., D. Carlson, R. Billington, J. Orley (2001) The WHO Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (WHOQOL-Bref): The importance of its items for cross-cultural research, Quality of Life Research, 10: 711–721. Sen, Amartya (2000), Social Exclusion: Concept, Application, and Scrutiny. Social Development Papers No.1, Office of Economic and Social Development. Manila: Asian Development Bank. STATA (2007), Stata Manual release 10, College Station, TX: Stata Press. UNDP (1999), Human Development Report 1999, United Nations Development Programme, New York: Oxford University Press. Veenhoven R. (1993) Happiness in Nations, Subjective Appreciation of Life in 56 Nations 1946-1992, Rotterdam: Erasmus University. Watson D., L. Clark (1991) Self versus Peer Ratings of Specific Emotional Traits: Evidence of Convergent and Discriminant Validity, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 60: 927-40. Wilkinson, R.G. (1997), Socioeconomic Determinants of Health, British Medical Journal, 314, p. 591. Wilson, William J. (1987), The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass, and public policy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press Wilson, W.J. (1993), The ghetto underclass: social science perspectives, Newbury Park, Ca.: Sage Publications. The Stationery Office (2007), National Action Plan for Social Inclusion, 2007-2016 , Dublin: The Stationery Office.",
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    }

    Borooah, V, Dineen, D & Lynch, N 2011, 'Health, Employment, and the Quality of Life in Ireland', Irish Journal of Sociology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 144-169.

    Health, Employment, and the Quality of Life in Ireland. / Borooah, Vani; Dineen, Donal; Lynch, Nicola.

    In: Irish Journal of Sociology, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2011, p. 144-169.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Health, Employment, and the Quality of Life in Ireland

    AU - Borooah, Vani

    AU - Dineen, Donal

    AU - Lynch, Nicola

    N1 - Reference text: Acheson D. (1998), Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health, The Stationery Office. London. Amato P.R. (2000), "The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children", Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62: November 2000, pp 1269–1287. Bjönberg, A. and Uhlir M. (2008), Euro Health Consumer Index, Bruxelles: Health Consumer Powerhouse. Black, D., Morris, N., Smith, C., Townsend, P. 1980 Inequalities in Health: a Report of a Research Working Group, London: Department of Health and Social Security. Borooah, V.K. (2001), Logit and Probit: Ordered and Multinomial Models, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Borooah V.K. (2006) How Much Happiness is there in the World? A Cross Country Study”, Applied Economics Letters, 13(8): 483-488. Bruini, L. and Porta, P. (2007), "Introduction", in L. Bruini and P. Porta (eds.), Handbook on the Economics of Happiness, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Campbell A. (1981) The Sense of Well-Being in America, New York: McGraw Hill. Campbell , A., Converse, P.E., and Rodgers, W.L. (1976), The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions, New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Cantril H. (1965) The pattern of human concerns, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Chubb, B. (1963), "Going About Persecuting Civil Servants: the Role of the Irish Parliamentary Representative", Political Studies, 10, pp. 272-286. Clinch J. P., S. Ferreira, F. Brereton, M. Moro, C. Bullock (2006) Understanding and measuring quality of life in Ireland: sustainability, happiness and well-being, Briefing paper has been prepared to inform the proceedings of the Comhar Conference “Towards Sustainability in the National Development Plan 2007-2013”, 4th to 6th October: http://www.comharsdc.ie/_files/comhar0704.pdf. Dale, A., and Marsh, C., (1993), The 1991 Census User's Guide,. HMSO, London. Diener, E. (1984) "Subjective Well-Being", Psychological Bulletin, 95: 542-575. Diener, E. and Seligman, M.E.P., (2004), "Beyond Money: Towards an Economy of Well-Being", Psychological Science in the Public Interest, vol. 5, pp. 1-31. DFID (2005), Reducing Poverty by Tackling Social Exclusion, London: Department of International Development. Dolan, P., T., Peasgood, M. White (2008) Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being, Journal of Economic Psychology, 29: 94-122. Drobnič, S., Beham, B., and Präg, P. (2010), "Good Job, Good Life? Working Conditions and Quality of Life in Europe", Social Indicators Research, 90: 205-225. Easterlin, R.A. (2001) Income and Happiness: Towards a Unified Theory, Economic Journal, 111 (473): 465-484. Eid, M. and Larsen, R.J. (eds) (2008), The Science of Subjective Well-Being, New York: The Guildford Press. Epstein, H. (1998), “Life and Death on the Social Ladder”, The New York Review of Books, Vol. XLV, pp. 26-30. Erikson, R. (1993), "Description of Inequality: the Swedish Approach to Welfare Research", in M. Nussbaum and A.K. Sen (eds.), The Quality of Life, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Foote, C., Gerardi, K., Goette, L., and Willen, P. (2009), Reducing Foreclosures: No Easy Answers, Working Paper 15063, New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. Frey B.S., A. Stutzer (2002) Happiness and Economics, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Fukuda-Parr, S (2003), "The Human Development Paradigm: Operationalizing Sen’s ideas on capabilities" Feminist Economics 9: 301 – 317. Gallacher, J. and Gallacher, R. (2011), "Are Relationships Good for Your Health", Student British Medical Journal, Student BMJ 2011; 19:d404. Haq, Mahbub ul. 1995. Reflections on Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press. Harvey, B. (2007), Evolution of Health Services and Health Policy in Ireland, Dublin: Combat Poverty Agency. Ingelhart, R., Basáñez, M., Díez-medrano, Halmn, L., Luijkx, R. (2004), Human Beliefs and Values: a cross-cultural sourcebook based on the 990-2002 values surveys, Siglo XXI Editores: Buenos Aires. Kelly, M. (2009), The Irish Credit Bubble, UCD Centre for Economics Research Working Paper Series WP09/32, Dublin: University College Dublin. Kelly, M. (2010), "If you thought the bank bailout was bad, wait until the mortgage defaults hit home", The Irish Times, 8 November 2010. Kenny, M.A. (2008), "A History of Ireland's Social Insurance", Irish Medical Times, 14 August 2008. Lenoir, René. 1974/1989. Les Exclus: Un Francais sur Dix. Paris: Editions du Seuil. Mathers, C.D. and Scholfield(1998), "The Health Consequences of Unemployment: the evidence", Medical Journal of Australia, 168, pp. 178-182. Marmot, M. ( 2000), “Multilevel Approaches to Understanding Social Determinants” in L. Berkman and I. Kawachi (eds.), Social Epidemiology, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 349-367. Marmot, M. (2004), Status Syndrome: How Our Position on the Social Gradient Affects Longevity and Health, London: Bloomsbury Publishing. Marsh, A. and McKay, S. (1994), Poor Smokers, London: Policy Studies Institute. Marsh, M., Sinnott, R., Garry, J., and Kennedy, F. (2008), The Irish Voter: the nature of electoral competition in the Republic of Ireland, Manchester: Manchester University Press. McGillivray, M. and Clarke, M. (2006), "Human Well-being: Concepts and Measures", in M. McGillivray and M. Clarke, (eds), Understanding Human Well-Being, Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. National Opinion Poll Research Center (1999) General Social Surveys, 1972-1998: Cumulative Codebook, Chicago: National Opinion Poll Research Center. Newman C., L. Delaney, B. Nolan (2008) A Dynamic Model of the Relationship Between Income and Financial Satisfaction: Evidence from Ireland, The Economic and Social Review, 39: (2) Summer/Autumn, pp. 105–130. OECD (2010), Health at a Glance: Europe 2010, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/health_glance-2010-en Oswald A. (1997) Happiness and Economic Performance, The Economic Journal, 107 (445): 1815-31. Pavot W. (1991) Further Validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: Evidence for the Cross-Method Convergence of Well-Being Measures, Journal of Personality Assessment, 57: 149-61. Richardson, K. (2001), Smoking, Low Income and Health Inequalities: Thematic Discussion Document, Report for Action on Smoking and Health and the Health DevelopmentAgency,http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/documents/smoking_low_income.pdf. Ross, C.E. and Wu, C-L. (1995), "The Links Between Education and Health", American Sociological Review, 60: pp. 719-745. Saxena S., D. Carlson, R. Billington, J. Orley (2001) The WHO Quality of Life Assessment Instrument (WHOQOL-Bref): The importance of its items for cross-cultural research, Quality of Life Research, 10: 711–721. Sen, Amartya (2000), Social Exclusion: Concept, Application, and Scrutiny. Social Development Papers No.1, Office of Economic and Social Development. Manila: Asian Development Bank. STATA (2007), Stata Manual release 10, College Station, TX: Stata Press. UNDP (1999), Human Development Report 1999, United Nations Development Programme, New York: Oxford University Press. Veenhoven R. (1993) Happiness in Nations, Subjective Appreciation of Life in 56 Nations 1946-1992, Rotterdam: Erasmus University. Watson D., L. Clark (1991) Self versus Peer Ratings of Specific Emotional Traits: Evidence of Convergent and Discriminant Validity, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 60: 927-40. Wilkinson, R.G. (1997), Socioeconomic Determinants of Health, British Medical Journal, 314, p. 591. Wilson, William J. (1987), The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass, and public policy, Chicago: University of Chicago Press Wilson, W.J. (1993), The ghetto underclass: social science perspectives, Newbury Park, Ca.: Sage Publications. The Stationery Office (2007), National Action Plan for Social Inclusion, 2007-2016 , Dublin: The Stationery Office.

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the Quality of Life (QoL) in Ireland using a sample of 3,500 respondents to the Irish Health Service Executive’s Survey of Consumers’ Experience of the Health Services in Ireland (HSE Survey) carried out between November 2006 and March 2007. Using an ordered logit model, we show that the likelihood of being satisfied with one's QoL is enhanced by social class, income, employment and, above all, by health. The methodology's ability to identify persons who might be "at risk" from a low QoL allows one to speculate on the QoL in Ireland today, in the winter of its discontent, compared to that in 2006-2007 when it basked in the summer of the Celtic Tiger. In present circumstances, one would expect that joblessness would play a much more important role in determining QoL: prior to 2008, unemployment meant a short wait till a suitable job turned up; now it is more likely to involve a protracted search at home or emigration. Furthermore, since unemployment often leads to bad health outcomes, one can be reasonably certain that the QoL associated with a 14 percent unemployment rate will be considerably worse than those witnessed during the halcyon days of the economic boom. This raises the question of how this additional, recession-induced, demand for health services will be met at a time when public expenditure on health in Ireland is to be cut by €1.4 billion over the next four years.

    AB - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the Quality of Life (QoL) in Ireland using a sample of 3,500 respondents to the Irish Health Service Executive’s Survey of Consumers’ Experience of the Health Services in Ireland (HSE Survey) carried out between November 2006 and March 2007. Using an ordered logit model, we show that the likelihood of being satisfied with one's QoL is enhanced by social class, income, employment and, above all, by health. The methodology's ability to identify persons who might be "at risk" from a low QoL allows one to speculate on the QoL in Ireland today, in the winter of its discontent, compared to that in 2006-2007 when it basked in the summer of the Celtic Tiger. In present circumstances, one would expect that joblessness would play a much more important role in determining QoL: prior to 2008, unemployment meant a short wait till a suitable job turned up; now it is more likely to involve a protracted search at home or emigration. Furthermore, since unemployment often leads to bad health outcomes, one can be reasonably certain that the QoL associated with a 14 percent unemployment rate will be considerably worse than those witnessed during the halcyon days of the economic boom. This raises the question of how this additional, recession-induced, demand for health services will be met at a time when public expenditure on health in Ireland is to be cut by €1.4 billion over the next four years.

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